Mathematical Logic - Ex 1.1 | Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 1

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic Ex 1.1

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic Ex 1.1

Question 1. - State which of the following sentences are statements. Justify your answer. In case of statement, write down the truth value :

(i) 5 + 4 = 13.
Solution:
It is a statement which is false, hence its truth value is ‘F’.

(ii) x – 3 = 14.
Solution:
It is an open sentence, hence it is not a statement.

(iii) Close the door.
Solution:
It is an imperative sentence, hence it is not a statement.

(iv) Zero is a complex number.
Solution:
It is a statement which is true, hence its truth value is ‘T’.


(v) Please get me breakfast.
Solution:
It is an imperative sentence, hence it is not a statement.

(vi) Congruent triangles are also similar.
Solution:
It is a statement which is true, hence its truth value is ‘T’.

(vii) x2 = x.
Solution:
It is an open sentence, hence it is not a statement,

(viii) A quadratic equation cannot have more than two roots.
Solution:
It is a statement which is true, hence its truth value is ‘T’.

(ix) Do you like Mathematics ?
Solution:
It is an interrogative sentence, hence it is not a statement.

(x) The sun sets in the west.
Solution:
It is a statement which is true, hence its truth value is ‘T’.

(xi) All real numbers are whole numbers.
Solution:
It is a statement which is false, hence its truth value is ‘F’.

(xii) Can you speak in Marathi ?
Solution:
It is an interrogative sentence, hence it is not a statement.

(xiii) x2 – 6x – 7 = 0, when x = 7.
Solution:
It is a statement which is true, hence its truth value is ‘T’.

(xiv) The sum of cuberoots of unity is zero.
Solution:
It is a statement which is true, hence its truth value is ‘T’.

(xv) It rains heavily.
Solution :
It is an open sentence, hence it is not a statement.


Question 2. Write the following compound statements symbolically:

(i) Nagpur is in Maharashtra and Chennai is in Tamil Nadu.
Solution:
Let p : Nagpur is in Maharashtra.
q : Chennai is in Tamil Nadu.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is P∧q.

(ii) Triangle is equilateral or isosceles,
Solution:
Let p : Triangle is equilateral.
q : Triangle is isosceles.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is P∨q.

(iii) The angle is right angle if and only if it is of measure 90°.
Solution:
Let p : The angle is right angle.
q : It is of measure 90°.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p↔q

(iv) Angle is neither acute nor obtuse.
Solution:
Let p : Angle is acute.
q : Angle is obtuse.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is
~p ∧ ~q.

(v) If ∆ ABC is right angled at B, then m∠A + m∠C = 90°.
Solution:
Let p : ∆ ABC is right angled at B.
q : m∠A + m∠C = 90°.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p → q

(vi) Hima Das wins gold medal if and only if she runs fast.
Solution:
Let p : Hima Das wins gold medal
q : She runs fast.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p ↔ q.

(vii) x is not irrational number but it is a square of an integer.
Solution:
Let p : x is not irrational number
q : It is a square of an integer
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p ∧ q
Note : If p : x is irrational number, then the symbolic form of the given statement is ~p ∧ q.


Question 3. Write the truth values of the following :

(i) 4 is odd or 1 is prime.
Solution:
Let p : 4 is odd.
q : 1 is prime.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p∨q.
The truth values of both p and q are F.
∴ the truth value of p v q is F. … [F ∨ F = F]

(ii) 64 is a perfect square and 46 is a prime number.
Solution:
Let p : 64 is a perfect square.
q : 46 is a prime number.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p∧q.
The truth values of p and q are T and F respectively.
∴ the truth value of p ∧ q is F. … [T ∧ F ≡ F]

(iii) 5 is a prime number and 7 divides 94.
Solution:
Let p : 5 is a prime number.
q : 7 divides 94.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p∧q.
The truth values of p and q are T and F respectively.
∴ the truth value of p ∧ q is F. … [T ∧ F ≡ F]

(iv) It is not true that 5 – 3i is a real number.
Solution:
Let p : 5 – 3i is a real number.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is ~ p.
The truth values of p is F.
∴ the truth values of ~ p is T. … [~ F ≡ T]

(v) If 3 × 5 = 8, then 3 + 5 = 15.
Solution:
Let p : 3 × 5 = 8.
q : 3 + 5 = 15.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p → q.
The truth values of both p and q are F.
∴ the truth value of p → q is T. … [F → F ≡ T]

(vi) Milk is white if and only if sky is blue.
Solution:
Let p : Milk is white.
q : Sky is blue
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p ↔ q.
The truth values of both p and q are T.
∴ the truth value of p ↔ q is T. … [T ↔ T ≡ T]

(vii) 24 is a composite number or 17 is a prime number.
Solution :
Let p : 24 is a composite number.
q : 17 is a prime number.
Then the symbolic form of the given statement is p ∨ q.
The truth values of both p and q are T.
∴ the truth value of p ∨ q is T. … [T ∨ T ≡ T]

Question 4.If the statements p, q are true statements and r, s are false statements, then determine the truth values of the following:

(i) p ∨ (q ∧ r)
Solution:
Truth values of p and q are T and truth values of r and s are F.
p ∨ (q ∧ r) ≡ T ∨ (T ∧ F)
≡ T ∧ F ≡ T
Hence the truth value of the given statement is true.

(ii) (p → q) ∨ (r → s)
Solution:
(p → q) ∨ (r → s) ≡ (T → T) ∨ (F → F)
≡ T ∨ T ≡ T
Hence the truth value of the given statement is true.

(iii) (q ∧ r) ∨ (~p ∧ s)
Solution:
(q ∧ r) ∨ (~p ∧ s) ≡ (T ∧ F) ∨ (~T ∧ F)
≡ F ∨ (F ∧ F)
≡ F ∨ F ≡ F
Hence the truth value of the given statement is false.

(iv) (p → q) ∧ (~ r)
Solution:
(p → q) ∧ (~ r) ≡ (T → T) ∧ (~ F)
≡ T ∧ T ≡ T
Hence the truth value of the given statement is true.


(v) (~r ↔ p) → (~q)
Solution:
(~r ↔ p) → (~q) ≡ (~F ↔ T) → (~T)
≡ (T ↔ T) → F
≡ T → F ≡ F
Hence the truth value of the given statement is false.

(vi) [~p ∧ (~q ∧ r) ∨ (q ∧ r) ∨ (p ∧ r)]
Solution:
[~p ∧ (~q ∧ r)∨(q ∧ r)∨(p ∧ r)]
≡ [~T ∧ (~T ∧ F)] ∨ [(T ∧ F) V (T ∧ F)]
≡ [F ∧ (F ∧ F)] ∨ [F V F]
≡ (F ∧ F) ∨ F
≡ F ∨ F ≡ F
Hence the truth value of the given statement is false.

(vii) [(~ p ∧ q) ∧ (~ r)] ∨ [(q → p) → (~ s ∨ r)]
Solution:
[(~ p ∧ q) ∧ (~ r)] ∨ [(q → p) → (~ s ∨ r)]
≡ [(~T ∧ T) ∧ (~F)] ∨ [(T → T) → (~F ∨ F)]
≡ [(F ∧ T) ∧ T] ∨ [T → (T ∨ F)]
≡ (F ∧ T) ∨ (T → T)
≡ F ∨ T ≡ T
Hence the truth value of the given statement is true.

(viii) ~ [(~p ∧ r) ∨ (s → ~q)] ↔ (p ∧ r)
Solution :
~ [(~p ∧ r) ∨ (s → ~q)] ↔ (p ∧ r)
≡ ~ [(~T ∧ F) ∨ (F → ~T)] ↔ (T ∧ F)
≡ ~ [(F ∧ F) ∨ (F → F)] ↔ F
≡ ~ (F ∨ T) ↔ F
≡ ~T ↔ F
≡ F ↔ F ≡ T
Hence the truth value of the given statement is true.

Question 5. Write the negations of the following :

(i) Tirupati is in Andhra Pradesh.
Solution:
The negations of the given statements are :
Tirupati is not in Andhra Pradesh.

(ii) 3 is not a root of the equation x2 + 3x – 18 = 0.
Solution:
3 is a root of the equation x2 + 3x – 18 = 0.


(iii) 2–√ is a rational number.
Solution:
2–√ is not a rational number.

(iv) Polygon ABCDE is a pentagon.
Solution:
Polygon ABCDE is not a pentagon.

(v) 7 + 3 > 5.
Solution :
7 + 3 > 5.

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic Ex 1.1

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Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic Ex 1.1

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