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Chapter 15: Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues [ Exercise,Solutions,Notes ]

Biotechnology Solution [ Exercise,Solutions,Notes ]

Chapter 15: Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues [ Exercise,Solutions,Notes ]

Choose the correct option

Exercise | Q 1.1 | Page 342
Observe the graph and select the correct option.
Line A represents, S = CA2
Line B represents, log C = log A + Z log S
Line A represents, S = CAZ
Line B represents, log S= log Z + C log A
Solution:
Line A represents, S = CAZ

Exercise | Q 1.2 | Page 342
Select the odd one out on the basis of Ex-situ conservation.
Zoological park
Tissue culture
Sacred groves
Cryopreservation
Solution:
Cryopreservation

Exercise | Q 1.3 | Page 342
Which of the following factors will favour species diversity?
Invasive species
Glaciation
Forest canopy
co extinction
Solution:
Forest canopy

Exercise | Q 1.4 | Page 342
The term “terror of Bengal’ is used for ___________.
algal bloom
water hyacinth
increased BOD
eutrophication
Solution:
The term “terror of Bengal’ is used for water hyacinth.

Exercise | Q 1.5 | Page 342
CFC are air polluting agents which are produced by ___________.
Diesel trucks
Jet planes
Rice fields
Industries
Solution:
CFC are air polluting agents that are produced by Jet planes.


Very short answer type question

Exercise | Q 2.1 | Page 342
Give two examples of biodegradable materials released from the sugar industry.
Solution:
Bagasse (dry pulpy residue left after extraction of juice from sugarcane), molasses (the liquid left after the first extraction of sugar) and press mud (organic waste) are biodegradable materials released from the sugar industry.

Exercise | Q 2.2 | Page 342
Name any 2 modern techniques of protection of endangered species.
Solution:
i. Tissue culture
ii. In vitro fertilization

Exercise | Q 2.3 | Page 342
Where was the ozone hole discovered?
Solution:
The ozone hole was discovered over the Antarctic region, wherein a depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in the formation of a large area of the thinned ozone layer, commonly called the ozone hole

Exercise | Q 2.4 | Page 342
Give one example of natural pollutants.
Solution:
Natural pollutants: Dust (fine particles from sand), fog, mist. fungi, bacteria, moulds, algae, viruses, etc.

Exercise | Q 2.5 | Page 342
What do you understand by the EW category of a living being?
Solution:
Extinct in the Wild (EW): A category containing those species whose members survive only in captivity.

Exercise | Q 3.1 | Page 342
Dandiya raas is not allowed after 10.00 pm. Why?
Solution:
i. During dandiya raas, the use of amplifiers or loudspeakers create lots of noise.
ii. Noise pollution may have many ill effects on human health:

a. Noise causes psychological and physiological changes in human beings.
b. Exposure to extremely high sound level (150 decibels or more) like that generated during a jet plane or rocket take off, may damage eardrums and cause permanent hearing loss.
c. Noise also can cause sleeplessness, increased heartbeat, altered breathing pattern, and psychological stress.
d. Noise may negatively interfere with a child’s learning and behaviour pattern.

iii. There is a need for creating awareness about noise pollution caused during festivals and processions in our society. Thus the Govt. of India has rules and regulations against firecrackers and loudspeakers.
iv. The Supreme court of India banned loudspeakers at public gatherings after 10:00 pm.
v. Also, playing loudspeakers or having public gatherings like dandiya raas after 10 p.m. violates the supreme court orders. Hence, dandiya raas is not allowed after 10.00 pm.

Exercise | Q 3.2 | Page 342
Tropical regions exhibit species richness as compared to polar regions. Justify.
Solution:
i. Factors like overall stability of tropical regions for millions of years, lesser climatic changes throughout the year, and availability of plenty of sunlight have favoured speciation.
ii. Tropical areas have less often experienced drastic disturbances like periodic glaciations observed at poles. Such stability over millions of years might have favoured speciation.
iii. Lesser migrations in tropics might have reduced gene flow between geographically isolated regions and favoured speciation.
iv. Scientists also have considered the availability of more intense sunlight, warmer temperatures and higher annual rainfall in tropics, as factors responsible for the bountifulness of these regions.
v. Some animals enjoy food preferences under climatic conditions and abundance of resources. e.g. Fruits being available throughout the year in rain forests, a variety of frugivorous organisms is obviously more as compared to the temperate regions.
vi. In short, species richness or diversity for plants and animals decreases as we move away from the equator to the poles. It is maximum in tropical rain forests.
e.g. Amazon rain forest (40,000 plants, 1300 birds, 427 mammals, 3000 species).
Hence, tropical regions exhibit species richness as compared to polar regions.

Exercise | Q 3.3 | Page 342
How does genetic diversity affect the sustenance of a species?
Solution:
Genetic diversity includes variation within a population and diversity between populations that are associated with adaptation to local conditions.
Genetic variations (e.g. allelic genes) lead to individual differences within species. Such variations eventually lead to evolution. They also improve the chances of continuation of species in the changing environmental conditions or allow the best adapted to survive.
The greater the genetic diversity, the better would be the sustenance of a species.
e.g.
a. Existence of subspecies or races
b. There are about 1000 varieties of mangoes and 50,000 varieties of rice or wheat in India.
c A medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria which secretes active component reserpine is found in different Himalayan ranges. This plant shows variations in terms of potency and concentration of the active chemical, from location to location.

Exercise | Q 3.4 | Page 342
The greenhouse effect is boon or bane? Give your opinion.
Solution:
i. Greenhouse effect is responsible for the heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of Earth would have been -18°C rather than the current average of 15°C. Hence, the greenhouse effect can be considered a boon for keeping Earth warm.
ii. However, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases result in global warming which causes unfavourable climatic changes i.e., melting of polar ice caps. Hence, the greenhouse effect is also a bane. Thus, it can be said that the greenhouse effect is a boon only until the emission of greenhouse gases is kept under control.

Short answer type question

Exercise | Q 3.5 | Page 342
How does CO cause giddiness and exhaustion?
Solution:
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas which binds with haemoglobin of the blood more readily than oxygen to form carboxyhaemoglobin. The presence of CO, therefore, reduces the amount of haemoglobin available in the blood for the transport of oxygen to the body cells. The harmful effects of inhaling increased amount of CO include giddiness, exhaustion, weak eyesight, headache, nervousness and cardiovascular disorders.

Exercise | Q 3.6 | Page 342
Name two types of particulate pollutants found in the air. Add a note on ill effects of the same on human health.
Solution:
i. Two types of particulate pollutants:
a. Natural pollutants: Dust (fine particles from sand), fog, mist. fungi, bacteria, moulds, algae, viruses, etc.
b. Manmade pollutants: Smoke, smog, pesticides, heavy metals, radioactive elements, etc.

ii. Adverse effects of particulate pollutants:
a. Particulates of about 1.0 µm in size enter lungs easily and those greater than 5 µm get lodged in nasal passage causing irritation in the respiratory tract. Viable particulate matters such as fungi, bacteria, moulds, and algae cause various air-borne diseases.
b. Heavy metal - mercury (Hg) particulate causes heaviness, headache, fatigue and nervousness along with a number of other problems. Prolonged exposure may cause CNS (Central Nervous System) breakdown. Accumulation of heavy metal - lead (Pb) in human tissue may disrupt normal functioning of RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles), which leads to anaemia. It also damages organs like liver, kidneys, intestines and also affects the CNS.
c. Women exposed to fine particulate matter (having a diameter less than 10 µm) give birth to children with small heads and bodies. These children also suffer from learning disability and have an increased risk of cancer. Polynuclear hydrocarbon coated particulates cause irreversible damage to DNA of the growing foetus.

Long answer type question

Exercise | Q 4.1 | Page 342
Montreal protocol is an essential step. Why is it so?
Solution:
i. Recognising the harmful effects of ozone depletion, an international treaty, known as the Montreal Protocol was signed at Montreal (Canada) in 1987 to control the emission of ozone-depleting substances.
ii. Later, many more efforts have been made and protocols have laid down definite roadmaps separately for developing and developed countries for reducing the emission of CFCs and other ozone-depleting chemicals.
iii. Montreal Protocol primarily focuses on chloro or Bromo derivates of hydrocarbons which are the main reasons for the depletion of the ozone layer.
iv. Montreal Protocol has provided a mechanism to reduce and phase-out the global production and consumption of substances that deplete the ozone layer.
v. Montreal Protocol has helped in successfully reducing the global production, consumption, and emissions of substances that deplete the ozone layer.
vi. Encouraging evidence for recovery of stratospheric ozone has been found. If the Montreal Protocol was not brought in, ozone depletion likely would be much greater than observed today. Hence, the Montreal Protocol is an essential step.

Exercise | Q 4.2 | Page 342
Name any 2 personalities who have contributed to control deforestation in our country. Elaborate on the importance of their work.
Solution:
Saalumarada Thimmakka, an Indian environmentalist from the state of Karnataka, and Moirangthem Loiya from Manipur have contributed to control deforestation in our country.
i. Saalumarada Thimmakka, an Indian environmentalist from the state of Karnataka noted for her work in planting and tending to 385 banyan trees along a 4 km stretch of highway between Hulikal and Kudur. She has also planted nearly 8000 other trees. Her work has been honoured with the National Citizens Award of India. She was also conferred with Padma Shri in 2019.
ii. Moirangthem Loiya from Manipur dedicated 17 years of his life to restore the Punshilok forest. He left his job and took over the task of bringing back the lost glory of 300 acres of forest land. He planted a variety of trees like, bamboo, oak, Ficus, teak, jackfruit, and Magnolia. Today the forest has over 250 varieties of plants including 25 varieties of bamboo. It is now selected as home by the great diversity of animals too.

Exercise | Q 4.3 | Page 342
How BS emission standards changed over time? Why is it essential?
Solution:
i. According to the new fuel policy, the norms are set to reduce sulphur and aromatic content of petrol and diesel. Another provision is the up-gradation of engines. For this, Bharat stage emission standards (BS) are set. These standards are equivalent to Euro norms and have evolved on similar lines as Bharat Stage II (BS-II) to BS-VI from 2001 to 2017.
ii. It is essential to change BS emission standards in order to limit the release of air pollutants from the internal combustion engine.
iii. In 2001, Bharat stage II emission norms were set for CNG and LPG vehicles. As per Bharat Stage II, the emission of sulphur should be controlled at 50 ppm in diesel and 150 ppm in petrol. Aromatic hydrocarbons should be just 42% in concerned fuel.
iv. The aim was to reduce sulphur emission to 50 ppm in petrol and diesel along with aromatic hydrocarbons to 35%. Hence, the Government of India directly adapted BS-VI in the year 2018, skipping BS V. These efforts decreased the levels of CO2 and SO2 in Delhi.

Exercise | Q 4.4 | Page 342
During large public gatherings like Pandharpur vari mobile toilets are deployed by the government. Explain how this organic waste is disposed of.
Solution:
i. During large public gatherings like Pandharpur vari mobile toilets are deployed by the Government. These mobile toilets are an example of ecological sanitation.
ii. This is a practical, efficient, and cost-effective solution for human waste disposal.
iii. In order to conserve water and prevent the creation of sewage, ecological sanitation (ecosan) is a sustainable system for handling human excreta using dry composting toilets.

iv. Organic waste disposal:
Ecological sanitation (Ecosan) is an approach to sanitation provision which safely reuses excreta in agriculture. This reduces the need for chemical fertilizers.
Ecosan toilet is a closed system that does not need water. It is an alternative to leach pit toilets in a place where water is scarce or where there is a risk of groundwater contamination. It is based on the principle of recovery and recycling of nutrients from excreta to create a valuable resource for agriculture. When the pit of an ecosan toilet fills up, it is closed and sealed.
After about 8-9 months, the faeces are completely composted to organic manure.

Exercise | Q 4.5 | Page 342
How Indian culture and traditions helped in bio-diversity conservation?
Solution:
i. Indian culture and traditions are always connected with nature, and rituals are laid down to protect biodiversity.
ii. In many cultures, stretches of forests were set aside and protected in the name of Almighty, which is called sacred groves.
iii. Such sacred groves are found in Khasi and Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, Western ghat regions of Maharashtra and Karnataka, Aravalli hills of Rajasthan and Bastar, and Chanda and Sarguja areas of Madhya Pradesh.
iv. Sacred groves serve the only chance of survival for some endangered varieties of animal and plant species. Tribals do not allow to cut even a single branch of a tree from a sacred grove.

Exercise | Q 4.5 | Page 342
Give the importance of conservation in terms of utilitarian reasons.
Solution:
The reasons for the conservation of biodiversity can be classified into three categories:

i. Narrowly utilitarian reasons:
a. Since ancient times, humans are reaping material benefits from biodiversity.
b. This includes, deriving resources for basic needs such as food, clothes, shelter, industrial products like resins, tannins, perfume base, etc., or aesthetic use like ornaments and artifacts.
c. The medicinal use of plants and animals is another major factor. It shares 25% of the global medicine market. Around 25000 species are put to use by tribals worldwide as traditional medicines. Several are yet to be explored for their potential as medicinal plants.
d. Nowadays, bioprospecting of economically important species is carried out. Bioprospecting is a systematic search for the development of new sources of chemical compounds, genes, micro-organisms, macro-organisms, and other valuable products from nature.

ii. Broadly utilitarian reasons:
a. Animals play a crucial role in pollination and seed dispersal.
b. Amazon forest is estimated to produce 20% of the total oxygen of Earth’s atmosphere. We need to consider the recreational use of biodiversity.
c. Devastating fires in the amazon rainforest were reported in August 2019. Such fires are mainly caused in Brazil and are more manmade than natural. The slash and burn policy of locals to reclaim forestland have caused a towering 906000 hectares of forest devastation, only in the year 2019.

iii. Ethical reasons: We have no right to destroy diversity simply because we share the earth with them! All living beings have equal rights to survive irrespective of their known or prospective economic use.

biodiversity conservation and environmental issues exercise answers

Diversity is variety. This variety of life is called biodiversity. Biodiversity includes a vast array of species of microorganisms- viruses, algae, fungi, plants and animals occurring on Earth, either in terrestrial or aquatic habitat and the ecological complexes of which they are part. The diversity is with respect to size (microscopic to macroscopic), shape, colour, form, mode of nutrition, type of habitat, reproduction, motility, duration of life cycle span, etc. 

This is actually due to the attempt of living beings to accomodate with different environmental conditions (like climatic, edaphic, topographic, geographic, etc.) or situations, solely for their survival and perpetuation. In doing so, living organisms adapt themselves to overcome different situations and thus develop distinct but different features and that has actually lead to the diversity in them. The diversity in features become infused in the life cycle. In short, these adaptations in different environments serve as basis for diversity.

Definition of Biodiversity : It is the part of nature which includes the differences in the genes among the individuals of a species; the variety and richness of all plants and animal species at different scales in a space - local regions, country and the world; and the types of ecosystem, both terrestrial and aquatic, within a defined area. The term biodiversity was actually coined by Walter Rosen (1982) but the term was popularised by sociologist Edward Wilson to describe combined diversity at all the levels of biological organisation.

Biodiversity that we see today, is the outcome of over 3.5 billion of years of evolutionary history mainly influenced by natural processes and of late by influence of humans. In this chapter, we shall study the basic concepts of biodiversity such as levels and patterns of biodiversity, expanse, importance, loss and conservation methods and efforts undertaken.

Levels of Biodiversity: Diversity of living world can be observed at various levels, ranging from molecular to ecosystem level. Major hierarchial and interrelated levels are genetic diversity, species diversity (community), and ecosystem diversity (ecological). 

a. Genetic diversity: It is the intraspecific diversity. It is the diversity in the number and types of genes as well as chromosomes present in different species and also the variation in the genes and their alleles in the same species. It includes variation within a population and diversity between populations that are associated with adaptation to local conditions. Genetic variations (e.g. allelic genes) lead to individual differences within species. Such variations pave way to evolution. They also improve chances of continuation of species in the changing environmental conditions or allow the best adapted to survive. 

Existence of subspecies, races are examples of genetic diversity. Greater the diversity, better would be sustenance of a species. You know about 1000 varieties of mangoes and 50,000 varieties of rice or wheat in India. Another case of genetic diversity is : a medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria which secretes active component reserpine, is found in different Himalayan ranges. 

This plant shows variations in terms of potency and concentration of active chemical, from location to location. Genetic diversity or variability is essential for a healthy breeding population of a species

b. Species diversity: It is the interspecific diversity. The number of species of plants and animals that are present in a region, constitutes its species diversity. Some areas or regions are richer in species than in the other regions. Species diversity deals with variety of species (species richness) as well as number of individuals of different species (species evenness) observed in area under study.

 E.g. amphibian species diversity is more in western ghats than in eastern ghats. Natural undisturbed tropical forests have much greater species richness than monoculture plantation of timber plant, developed by forest plantation. India is one among 15 nations that are rich in species diversity.

c. Ecological (Ecosystem) diversity: It is related to the different types of ecosystems/ habitats within a given geographical area. There are a large variety of ecosystems on Earth having their own complement of distinctive interlinked species, based on the differences in the habitat. 

It can be described for a specific geographical region. Generally, there may be one or many different types of ecosystems in a region. Thus, ecosystem diversity is very high in India while it is quite low in Norway. In India, we can find a great variety of ecosystems - deserts, rain forests, deciduous forests, estuaries, wetlands, grasslands, etc. The Western ghats show great ecosystem diversity while regions like Ladakh and Rann of Kutch do not show variance like we observe in Western ghats.

The diversity of life at all the three levels is now rapidly being modified by modern man.

 Patterns of Biodiversity: There are two patterns viz, Latitudinal and Altitudinal gradient and species-area relationship a. Latitudinal and altitudinal gradients : Biodiversity, barring Arid/ Semiarid and aquatic habitat, show latitudinal and altitudinal gradient. 

Latitudinal : Ecological studies have revealed that the distribution of diversity is not uniform around the Globe. Species richness exhibits latitudinal gradient for many plants and animals (if not all). It has been observed that species richness is high at lower latitudes and there is a steady decline towards the poles.

Factors like overall stability of tropical regions for millions of years, lesser climatic changes throughout the year and availability of plenty of sunlight that favoured speciation. Tropical areas have less often experienced drastic disturbances like periodic glaciations observed at poles. Such a stability over millions of years might have favoured speciation. 

Lesser migrations in tropics might have reduced gene flow between geographically isolated regions and favoured speciation. Scientists also have considered availability of more intense sunlight, warmer temperatures and higher annual rainfall in tropics, as factors responsible for bountifulness of these regions. In more or less constant climatic conditions and abundance of resources, some animals enjoy food preferences. 

For e.g. fruits being available throughout the year in rain forests, variety of frugivorous organisms is obviously more as compared to the temperate regions. In short, species richness or diversity for plants and animals decreases as we move away from equator to the poles. It is maximum in tropical rain forests e.g. Amazon rain forest (40,000 plants, 1300 birds, 427 mammals, 3000 species)

Altitudinal : It speaks for the height from mean sea level (MSL) upwards. Species diversity is more at lower altitudes than at the heigher altitudes. It is because at heigher altitudes, change in the climatic conditions and drastic seasonal varitations, lead to the decrease in the species diversity. 

b. Species-Area relationships : Scientists have tried to establish relationship between species diversity and the size of the habitat. It is considered that number of species present is directly proportional to the area. It is understood that larger areas may have more resources that can be distributed amongst the inhabitant species. Does this always hold true? German naturalist Alexander Von

Humboldt observed that species richness does increase with the increase in area but upto a limit. Observe the graph for species-area relationship. For many species this curve is a rectangular hyperbola. If we consider S to be species richness, A as area under study, C as the Y intercept and Z as the slope of the line, this relationship can be described by the equation, log S=log C+ Z log A. 

On logarithmic scale this relationship is a straight line, as observed in the figure above. For smaller areas, value of Z ranges between 0.1 to 0.2 regardless of species or region under study. But for the larger areas like the entire continents, slopes are closer to vertical axis i.e. steeper. This observation indicates that in very large areas, number of species found, increase faster than the area explored.

A community is said to be stable, if average biomass production remains fairly constant over a period of time. It should be strong enough to withstand disturbances and recover quickly. It also must be resistant to invasive species. David Tillman carried out various field experiments and proved that species richness does help the stability of an ecological community. Rich diversity leads to lesser variation in biomass production over a period of time. 

This is called ProductivityStability Hypothesis. Paul Ehrlich, an ecologist from Stanford gave an analogy to explain significance of diversity. It is called Rivet Popper Hypothesis. He compared Aeroplane to ecosystem and the species as rivets that keep all parts of the aeroplane together. Ofcourse, there are thousands of rivets needed to hold all the parts of the aeroplane together. 

If each passenger decides to pop even one rivet or in other words, if one species gets extinct, initially not much of the turbulence will be experienced but slowly, as number of popped rivets will increase, there will be a serious threat to the safety of the aeroplane. Also, which rivets are removed will also matter. Suppose, rivets at key positions such as the ones that bind the wings to the body of the aeroplane, are removed, situation will become serious. 

Thus, we can say that relationship between diversity and well being of ecosystem is not linear. But it is certain that loss of species may not pose threat to the ecosystem only initially. Loss of key species will certainly cause threat in very short span of time. It will affect food chains, food web, energy flow, natural cycles, etc. In short it will affect the balace of ecosystem. 

 Biodiversity Current Scenario 
How many species do really exist on earth and how many of them are found in India? It is difficult to come to consensus about the exact number of species that are present on earth today. Though over 1.5 million species have been documented as per IUCN data (2004) so far, we are yet to study lot more than these. We are also unaware about speciation process that might have continued. Most of the studies that have been carried out are in temperate regions. 

Tropical rain forests, the major diversity hubs, are yet to be explored completely. Some exorbitant numbers like existence of 20 to 50 million varieties have been made. But Robert May has given convincing estimate of about 7 million species round the globe. Observe the given pie charts and find out the relative share of various plant and animal groups in the existing knowledge of biodiversity.
 
In the diagrams, we do not find any data of prokaryotes. Several moneran species are not cultivable under laboratory conditions. Also, conventional taxonomic methods are not suitable for identification of prokaryotic species. India boasts a handsome share of 8.1% of total biodiversity wealth of the earth. One of the 12 megadiversity countries of the globe, India has 2.4% of total land area of the world.

 We have identified around 45000 plant species and nearly double the number of animal varieties from our natural wealth. If we consider May’s estimate of global biodiversity, we have recorded only 22% of our natural wealth. This situation underlines the need of taxonomists to study the biodiversity. But major concern is the possibility of loss of these varieties before we identify them because of activities like reclamation and deforestation.

Mission Harit Maharashtra : An ambitious project of planting 50 crore trees in four years was taken up by Government of Maharashtra in the year 2016. Under this project yearly targets were given to each district. The plantation drive is in line with National Forest Policy (NFP) which aims at maintaining 33% forest cover in the country. A 24-hour toll free helpline number 1926 called ‘Hello Forest’ has been set up to provide information regarding plantation, protection and for mass awareness

The Forest Department has created a mobile application called ‘My Plants’ to record details of the plantation such as numbers, species and location. Authorities are expected to take care of saplings in the first year i.e., year 2016, 2.87 crore saplings were planted. In 2017, 5.17 crore and in 2018, 15.17crore plantation count was achieved! In the year 2019, the government aimed at a phenomenal 33 crore sapling plantation which was launched at Anandwan, Warora.

The government has decided to adapt Japanese Miyawaki method of plantation for this project. State Forest Department and Social Forestry Department have run successful pilot plantation programmes using Miyawaki pattern in various districts like, Beed, Hingoli, Pune, Jalgaon, Aurangabad etc. 

Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues Exercise 

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Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues Solutions 

Balbharati solutions for Biology 12th Standard HSC for Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants
Chapter 2: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals
Chapter 3: Inheritance and Variation
Chapter 4: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 5: Origin and Evolution of Life
Chapter 6: Plant Water Relation
Chapter 7: Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition
Chapter 8: Respiration and Circulation
Chapter 9: Control and Co-ordination
Chapter 10: Human Health and Diseases
Chapter 11: Enhancement of Food Production
Chapter 12: Biotechnology
Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations
Chapter 14: Ecosystems and Energy Flow
Chapter 15: Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues

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