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Pillars Of Democracy Class 11 Questions And Answers

Chapter 1.4: Pillars of Democracy - Brainstorming

Pillars Of Democracy Class 11 Questions And Answers

ICE BREAKERS [PAGE 35] 

Ice Breakers | Q 1. (i) | Page 35
Discuss with your partner and choose the correct alternative.
‘Government of the people, by the people and for the people, shall not perish from the earth’. This famous statement is made by - ______________________.
Mahatma Gandhi
Nelson Mandela
Abraham Lincoln
Dalai Lama
Solution :
‘Government of the people, by the people and for the people, shall not perish from the earth’. This famous statement is made by - Abraham Lincoln.

Ice Breakers | Q 1. (ii) | Page 35
Discuss with your partner and choose the correct alternative.
A system where the government is elected and ruled by people is called - ________________.
Bureaucracy
Aristocracy
Democracy
Autocracy
Solution :
A system where the government is elected and ruled by people is called - Democracy.

Ice Breakers | Q 1. (iii) | Page 35
Discuss with your partner and choose the correct alternative.
A democratic country is governed by, its - __________________.
Military
Police
Politicians
Constitution
Solution :
A democratic country is governed by, its - Constitution.

Ice Breakers | Q 2. (i) | Page 35
The trinity of democracy comprises three principles. Complete the web to show the trinity of democracy.
Solution :

Ice Breakers | Q 2. (ii) | Page 35
Match the following.
Sr. NoAB
1.Constitutiona.It is the freedom to go where you want, do what you want, etc.
2.Libertyb.It is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities.
3.Equalityc.It is a sense of common brotherhood.
4.Fraternityd.It is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organization, or other types of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
Solution :
Sr. NoAB
1.Constitutiond.It is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organization, or other types of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
2.Libertya.It is the freedom to go where you want, do what you want, etc.
3.Equalityb.It is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities.
4.Fraternityc.It is a sense of common brotherhood.

Ice Breakers | Q 2. (iii) | Page 35
Pillars form support for concrete buildings. Metaphorically speaking a strong nation too depends on strong pillars. Discuss with your partner and explain the pillars of a democratic nation. Make a list of obstacles that are a threat to the progress of a nation.
Solution :
The Legislature, the executive, the judiciary, and the press are the 4 important pillars of a democratic nation.
Legislature
The legislature is an indispensable part of a democratic government that formulates the laws for a country through representatives elected by voting. Legislature includes the parliament and the state assemblies. When people‟s representatives strongly deliberate the laws in a legislature, democracy emerges victorious.
Executive
The president, the prime minister, his cabinet, and bureaucrats form the executive, the second pillar of democracy. These offices in a democracy carry out the implementation of policies and laws for the welfare of the people. A strong executive force is necessary for the smooth functioning of a democracy.
Judiciary
The judiciary looks after the application of law and constitution and gives impartial judgments in matters of state and individuals. The pillar of the judiciary plays a vital role in maintaining law and order and imparting justice in a democracy.
Press
The press communicates issues of public importance to the masses. Press is yet another important pillar of democracy that keeps a check on the government and ultimately serves the public interest. Listed below are some of the obstacles that are a threat to the progress of a nation:
i. unemployment
ii. illiteracy
iii. population growth
iv. inflation
v. rising inequality
vi. corruption
vii. poverty
viii. red-tapism
ix. terrorism
x. black money
xi. interstate disharmony


BRAINSTORMING [PAGES 39 - 42] 

Form groups and use the following topic for discussion. Take the help of your college library and your teacher.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (i) | Page 39
Need for democracy
Solution :
Need for democracy
Democracy is a fair way to put people into power.
Freedom granted to individuals to live a life of their choice.
Criticism from opposition to the government in power
Citizen's right to question every action of a democratic government.
Disadvantages of other forms of government.
Citizens of other countries suffering at the hands of supreme authority.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (i) | Page 39
Features of the Constitution of India
Solution :
Features of the constitution of India
Drafting of the constitution of India
Its structure – Parts, schedules, and appendices
Sections pertaining to the legislature, government, and judiciary
flexibility and scope for amendments.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (i) | Page 39
Freedom of speech
Solution :
Freedom of speech
The meaning and what it stands for
The necessity of freedom of speech
How people can suffer if freedom of speech is denied
Adverse consequences of misuse of freedom of speech.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (i) | Page 39
Dictatorship Vs Democracy
Solution :
Dictatorship Vs Democracy
explanation of the two terms
the way two governments function
examples of countries following each of the two systems
advantages of democracy over dictatorship
Situations that justify the need for dictatorship.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (i) | Page 39
Qualities of an ideal politician
Solution :
Qualities of an ideal politician
clean track record
a technically skilled and good orator
should be delivering on his promises
must be honest and have integrity
strive towards the public interest.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (i) | Page 39
Equality before law
Solution :
Equality before law
all citizens are equal before the law
no discrimination based on race, religion, gender, caste, and place of birth.
why is it necessary in a democracy
examples from the past that portray equality before the law.

State whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement. 

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (ii) (a) | Page 39
There is nothing wrong with being grateful to great men.
True
False
Solution :
There is nothing wrong with being grateful to great men - True.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (ii) (b) | Page 39
Hero-worship leads to dictatorship.
True
False
Solution :
Hero-worship leads to dictatorship - False.
Explanation:
Hero-worship in 'politics' leads to dictatorship.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (ii) (c) | Page 39
Liberty cannot be divorced from equality.
True
False
Solution :
Liberty cannot be divorced from equality - True.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (ii) (d) | Page 39
One man one vote and one vote one value.
True
False
Solution :
One man one vote and one vote one value - True.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (ii) (e) | Page 39
Fraternity means common sense.
True
False
Solution :
Fraternity means common sense - False.
Explanation:
Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood.

Brainstorming | Q (A1) (iii) | Page 39
In his speech, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar has expressed his deep concern over the absence of two things in the then Indian society. Discuss with your partner and complete the web.
Solution :

Brainstorming | Q (A2) (i) | Page 40
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar has cited the quotes by John Stuart Mill and Daniel O’Connel. Go through the lesson and write down 4 to 5 lines for each of them.
Solution :
John Stuart Mill
  • In the extract, John Stuart Mill has been quoted as “(not) to lay their liberties at the feet of even a great man, or to trust him with powers which enable him to subvert their institutions.”
  • This is a word of caution for the people who trust in democracy.
  • It is but natural to get overwhelmed by the achievements of a great man.
  • At the same time, it is not wise enough to entrust him with all the powers that he can possibly misuse which can eventually cause damage to the institution.

Daniel O'Connell
  • In the same extract, Daniel O'Connel has been quoted as 'No man can be grateful at the cost of his honour, no woman can be grateful at the cost of her chastity and no nation can be grateful at the cost of its liberty.'
  • Daniels talks about the limitations of being grateful to great men.
  • Similar to how a man and a woman need to safeguard their honour and chastity respectively while being grateful, a nation must safeguard its liberty.
  • In short, the quote emphasizes the importance of liberty when compared to gratefulness.

Brainstorming | Q (A2) (ii) | Page 40
Discuss with your partner and make a list of steps that you feel are essential to unite the people of different castes, races, religions, and languages in India.
Solution :
Students do it Yourself.

Write your views/opinions in brief on the following topic. 

Brainstorming | Q (A2) (iii) (a) | Page 40
We must always cast our votes.
Solution :
Voting is every citizen's right in a democracy and it should be exercised religiously. Voting makes sure the right candidates get elected and run our government. We cannot blame the non-performance of a government if we do not turn out to vote. Not casting a vote is equivalent to not having faith in democracy.

Brainstorming | Q (A2) (iii) (b) | Page 40
Liberty, equality, and fraternity lead to an ideal nation.
Solution :
Liberty, equality, and fraternity are considered the trinity of democracy. Liberty gives impetus for progress, equality ensures equal opportunities, and contentment and fraternity provide a healthy atmosphere and solidarity in times of distress. These three essentials go hand in hand in an ideal nation.

Brainstorming | Q (A2) (iii) (c) | Page 40
Steps to be taken to eradicate inequality.
Solution :
The preliminary steps to eradicate inequality are imparting education and empowering individuals. The steps to eradicate economic inequality would include employment generation and redistribution of wealth. This can be achieved by a progressive collection of taxes. Social inequality needs to be addressed through social awareness. Strict laws should be formulated and implemented against those who indulge in discrimination.

Brainstorming | Q (A2) (iii) (d) | Page 40
Role of youth in creating social awareness.
Solution :
The youth are the future of a nation. Their contemporary views matter the most and should reach the masses at large. They are an energetic lot and have the ability to execute changes. They know what is in their best interest, and with technology by their side, the youth has all the avenues necessary to create social awareness.

Brainstorming | Q (A3) (i) | Page 40
Let’s use the Thesaurus.
Along with your partner, go to the library or search the internet for a standard Thesaurus to complete the following table. One is done for you.
Sr. No.WordTypeSynonymAntonym
1.observeverbnotice, discern, detect, markignore, overlook
2.abandoned   
3.grateful   
4.initiative   
5.peril   
6.separation   
Solution :
Sr. No.WordTypeSynonymAntonym
1.observeverbnotice, discern, detect, markignore, overlook
2.abandonedverbdiscarded, rejected, deserted, droppedadopted, maintained
3.gratefuladjectivethankful, indebted, obligedthankless, rude, ungrateful
4.initiativenounaction, drive, push, leadershipapathy, inactivity
5.perilnounhazard, jeopardy, pitfallcertainty, protection, security
6.separationnounpartition, departure, split, segregationconnection, union

Brainstorming | Q (A3) (ii) | Page 40
Homograph: Homograph is a word spelled and pronounced like another word but with a different meaning.
For example: the word ‘fast’ has two meanings. The different meanings are -
fast- hold firmly
fast- to abstain from food
fast- opposite of slow.
Go through the text again and make a list of meanings of all the homographs that are found in the text. Also, make a list of such words that you know, heard, or read somewhere.
Solution :
The following homographs can be found in the extract:
  1. form – Visible shape of a thing
  2. form – a document with information
  3. left – relating to side
  4. left – Past tense of leave
  5. deal – Commercial activity or trading
  6. deal – Distributing cards in order
  7. second – Numerically following the first
  8. second – unit for measuring time
  9. feet – The base of legs
  10. feet – unit for measuring length
  11. even – flat or smooth
  12. even – emphasize with surprise
  13. even – any number divisible by 2 without leaving a remainder
  14. part – some but not the whole of anything
  15. part – move away from each other
  16. accent, bat, grave, leave, letter, record, just, park, the wound are some other homographs that we commonly hear.

Go through the statement taken from the text – ‘The social democracy means a way of life which recognises liberty, equality, and fraternity’.
The underlined part of the statement provides us some facts/information about social democracy. The remaining part of the sentence which is not underlined can be converted into a wh-question.
What does social democracy mean?
Now go through the underlined part of the statement/sentence given below and change them into question by using the appropriate Wh-form.

Brainstorming | Q (A4) (i) (a) | Page 40
In Politics, we will be recognizing the principle of ‘one man one vote’ and ‘one vote one value’.
Solution :
Which principle will we be recognising in Politics?

Brainstorming | Q (A4) (i) (b) | Page 41
The politically minded Indians preferred the expression ‘the Indian nation’.
Solution :
Which expression was preferred by the politically-minded Indians?

Brainstorming | Q (A4) (i) (c) | Page 41
Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians.
Solution :
What does fraternity mean?

Brainstorming | Q (A4) (i) | Page 41
Make a list of various prepositions, write their definition, and make sentences of your own. Here are some prepositions that will definitely be brainstorming for you.
  • in, into, inside
  • on, onto, above, over
  • beside, besides
  • for, from, since
  • to, towards
  • down, below, under, beneath, underneath
  • between, among, amongst (And the list goes on _____)
Solution :
i. Rama stood first in the class.
ii. Jay somehow crawled into the elevator.
iii. Steve went inside the cave.
iv. The matchstick was lying on the shelf.
v. Sneha somehow climbed onto the roof.
vi. Shreyas placed the lamp above the table.
vii. The Jumbo-jet flew over the city.
viii. The teacher sat beside Arya to explain the solution to the problem.
ix. Besides selling bread, the bakery also sold cakes.
x. Shreyas played for his home team.
xi. Jiya earned her degree from a reputed college.
xii. Ravi knew Jay's medical condition since a long time.
xiii. The driver wanted to drink water.
xiv. The horse went towards the lake.
xv. The house went down like a pack of cards.
xvi. Sanjay‟s name was right below Sanjana‟s name.
xvii. Thankfully there was nobody under the car shed.
xviii. The layer of rock usually lies beneath the layer of soil.
xix. Krishna always forgets his earphones underneath the blanket.
xx. The battle between the arch-rivals was a fierce one.
xxi. Rajas preferred to stay among his community members.
xxii. The elephant is the largest amongst all land animals.


Brainstorming | Q (A7) | Page 42
Visit your college library or search the internet for at least five speeches of different renowned personalities of the world. Write the speeches in your notebook and submit them to your teacher.
Solution :
Winston Churchill: War Speech

In this solemn hour, it is a consolation to recall and to dwell upon our repeated efforts for peace. All have been ill-starred, but all have been faithful and sincere. This is of the highest moral value--and not only moral value, but practical value--at the present time, because the wholehearted concurrence of scores of millions of men and women, whose co-operation is indispensable and whose comradeship and brotherhood are indispensable, is the only foundation upon which the trial and tribulation of modern war can be endured and surmounted. This moral conviction alone affords that ever-fresh resilience which renews the strength and energy of people in long, doubtful, and dark days. Outside, the storms of war may blow and the lands may be lashed with the fury of its gales, but in our own hearts this Sunday morning there is peace. Our hands may be active, but our consciences are at rest.

We must not underrate the gravity of the task which lies before us or the temerity of the ordeal, to which we shall not be found unequal. We must expect many disappointments, and many unpleasant surprises, but we may be sure that the task which we have freely accepted is one not beyond the compass and the strength of the British Empire and the French Republic. The Prime Minister said it was a sad day, and that is indeed true, but at the present time there is another note which may be present, and that is a feeling of thankfulness that, if these great trials were to come upon our Island, there is a generation of Britons here now ready to prove itself not unworthy of the days of yore and not unworthy of those great men, the fathers of our land, who laid the foundations of our laws and shaped the greatness of our country.

This is not a question of fighting for Danzig or fighting for Poland. We are fighting to save the whole world from the pestilence of Nazi tyranny and in defense of all that is most sacred to man. This is no war of domination or imperial aggrandizement or material gain; no war to shut any country out of its sunlight and means of progress. It is a war, viewed in its inherent quality, to establish, on impregnable rocks, the rights of the individual, and it is a war to establish and revive the stature of a man. Perhaps it might seem a paradox that a war undertaken in the name of liberty and right should require, as a necessary part of its processes, the surrender for the time being of so many of the dearly valued liberties and rights. In these last few days, the House of Commons has been voting dozens of Bills which hand over to the executive our most dearly valued traditional liberties. We are sure that these liberties will be in hands which will not abuse them, which will use them for no class or party interests, which will cherish and guard them, and we look forward to the day, surely and confidently we look forward to the day, when our liberties and rights will be restored to us, and when we shall be able to share them with the peoples to whom such blessings are unknown.

Winston Churchill
September 3, 1939
House of Commons

Jawaharlal Nehru Speech on the birth of independent India

Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history when we step out from the old to the new when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

At the dawn of history, India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her successes and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?

Freedom and power bring responsibility. That responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom, we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.

That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we might fulfill the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.

And so we have to labor and to work and work hard to give reality to our dreams. Those dreams are for India, but they are also for the world, for all the nations and peoples are too closely knit together today for any one of them to imagine that it can live apart. Peace has been said to be indivisible, so is freedom, so is prosperity now, and so also is a disaster in this one world that can no longer be split into isolated fragments.

To the people of India, whose representatives we are, we make an appeal to join us with faith and confidence in this great adventure. This is no time for petty and destructive criticism, no time for ill will, or blaming others. We have to build the noble mansion of free India where all her children may dwell.

I beg to move, Sir.

“That it be resolved that :

(1) After the last stroke of midnight, all members of the Constituent Assembly present on this occasion do take the following pledge:

At this solemn moment when the people of India, through suffering and sacrifice, have secured freedom, I, ……….., a member of the Constituent Assembly of India, do dedicate myself in all humility to the service of India and her people to the end that this ancient land attains her rightful place in the world and make her full and willing contribution to the promotion of world peace and the welfare of mankind.

(2) Members who are not present on this occasion do take the pledge (with such verbal changes at the President may prescribe) at the time they next attend a session of the Assembly.”

Martin Luther King acceptance Speech

"I must ask why this prize is awarded to a movement which is beleaguered and committed to the unrelenting struggle, and to a movement which has not yet won the very peace and brotherhood which is the essence of the Nobel Prize," King said. "After contemplation, I conclude that this award, which I receive on behalf of that movement, is a profound recognition that nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time: the need for man to overcome oppression and violence without resorting to violence and oppression."

At the end of his speech, he called peace "more precious than diamonds or silver or gold."

Nelson Mandela Speech

I am turning 86 in a few week's time and that is a longer life than most people are granted. I have the added blessing of being in very good health, at least according to my doctors. I am confident that nobody present here today will accuse me of selfishness if I ask to spend time, while I am still in good health, with my family, my friends, and also with myself.

One of the things that made me long to be back in prison was that I had so little opportunity for reading, thinking, and quiet reflection after my release. I intend, amongst other things, to give myself much more opportunity for such reading and reflection. And of course, there are those memoirs about the presidential years that now really need my urgent attention.

When I told one of my advisors a few months ago that I wanted to retire he growled at me: "you are retired." If that is really the case then I should say I now announce that I am retiring from retirement.

I do not intend to hide away totally from the public, but henceforth I want to be in the position of calling you to ask whether I would be welcome, rather than being called upon to do things and participate in events. The appeal, therefore, is: don’t call me, I’ll call you.

 Pillars Of Democracy Class 11 Questions And Answers | pillars of democracy 11th class summary

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow (now Dr. Ambedkar nagar) in Madhya Pradesh. He got his degree from Elphinston College, Mumbai. He subsequently obtained the doctorate from Columbia University, USA and London School of Economics. He was also assigned the big and challenging task of framing the ‘Constitution of India’ in the capacity of Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

 He was awarded the ‘Bharat Ratna’ posthumously for his dedication and commitment for the welfare of our country. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar has laid emphasis on the values of liberty, equality and fraternity. According to him, these principles will make India a strong nation. He is of the view that hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship and the collapse of a nation

Pillars of Democracy If we wish to maintain democracy not merely in form, but also in fact, what must we do ? The first thing in my judgement we must do is to hold fast to constitutional methods of achieving our social and economic objectives. When there was no way left for constitutional methods for achieving economic and social objectives, there was a great deal of justification for unconstitutional methods. But where constitutional methods are open, there can be no justification for these unconstitutional methods.

 These methods are nothing but the Grammar of Anarchy and the sooner they are abandoned, the better for us. The second thing we must do is to observe the caution which John Stuart Mill has given to all who are interested in the maintenance of democracy, namely, not “to lay their liberties at the feet of even a great man, or to trust him with powers which enable him to subvert their institutions.” There is nothing wrong in being grateful to great men who have rendered life-long services to the country. But there are limits to gratefulness. As has been well said by

the Irish Patriot Daniel O’Connel, ‘No man can be grateful at the cost of his honour, no woman can be grateful at the cost of her chastity and no nation can be grateful at the cost of its liberty.’ This caution is far more necessary in the case of India than in the case of any other country, for in India, Bhakti or what may be called the path of devotion or hero-worship, plays a part in its politics unequalled in magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other country in the world.

 Bhakti in religion may be a road to the salvation of the soul. But in politics, Bhakti or heroworship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship. On the 26th of January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality. 

In Politics we will be recognizing the principle of ‘one man one vote’ and ‘one vote one value’. In our social and economic life, we shall, by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value. How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions ? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life ?

 If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment or else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of political democracy which this Assembly has so laboriously built up. The second thing we are wanting in is recognition of the principle of fraternity.

 What does fraternity mean? Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians—if Indians being one people. It is the principle which gives unity and solidarity to social life. It is a difficult thing to achieve. How difficult it is, can be realized from the story related by James Bryce in his volume on American Commonwealth about the United States of America. The story is—I

propose to recount it in the words of Bryce himself— that— “Some years ago the American Protestant Episcopal Church was occupied at its triennial convention in revising its liturgy. It was thought desirable to introduce among the short sentence prayers a prayer for the whole people, and an eminent New England divine proposed the words ‘O Lord, bless our nation.’ 

 Accepted one afternoon on the spur of the moment, the sentence was brought up next day for reconsideration, when so many objections were raised by the laity to the word ‘nation’ as importing too definite a recognition of national unity, that it was dropped, and instead there were adopted the words ‘O Lord, bless these United States’.”

 There was so little solidarity in the U.S.A. at the time when this incident occurred that the people of America did not think that they were a nation. If the people of the United States could not feel that they were a nation, how difficult it is for Indians to think that they are a nation.

 I remember the days when politically-minded Indians resented the expression” the people of India. “They preferred the expression The Indian nation.” I am of opinion that in believing that we are a nation, we are cherishing a great delusion. How can people divided into several thousands of castes be a nation ?

 The sooner we realize that we are not as yet a nation in the social and psychological sense of the word, the better for us. For then only we shall realize the necessity of becoming a nation and seriously think of ways and means of realizing the goal. The realization of this goal is going to be very difficult—far more difficult than it has been in the United States. 

The United States has no caste problem. In India there are castes. The castes are anti-national. In the first place because they bring about separation in social life. They are anti-national also because they generate jealousy and antipathy between caste and 

creed. But we must overcome all these difficulties if we wish to become a nation in reality. For fraternity can be a fact only when there is a nation. Without fraternity, equality and liberty will be no deeper than coats of paint. 
-Dr. B. R. Ambedka 

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