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Direct & Indirect Narration [ प्रत्यक्ष एवं अप्रत्यक्ष वर्णन ]


Direct and Indirect Speech (प्रत्यक्ष व अप्रत्यक्ष कथन)

खालील वाक्ये पहा :
1. He said to Riya, “You look very beautiful today."
2. He told Riya that she looked very beautiful that day.

Direct and Indirect SpeechDirect and Indirect Speech


आता खालील बाबींवर विचार कराः
१. वरील दोन्ही वाक्यात काय फरक आहे?
२. दोन्ही वाक्यांच्या काळात काय फरक आहे?
३. विराम चिन्हे, अवतरण चिन्हांत काय फरक आहे?
४. दोन्ही underline केलेल्या शब्दांत काय फरक आहे?
५. सर्वनामात काय बदल झालेला आहे?
६. वेळ दर्शविणाऱ्या क्रियाविशेषणात काय फरक पडला आहे? वरील प्रश्नांची उत्तरे खालील प्रमाणे होतील:

१. पहिल्या वाक्यात बोलणाऱ्या व्यक्तीचे शब्द जसेच्या तसे व अवतरण चिन्हांत दिलेले आहेत. या वाक्याला Direct Speech असे म्हणतात. दुसऱ्या वाक्यात बोलणाऱ्या व्यक्तीचे वाक्य आपण आपल्या पध्दतीने बदलून सांगितले आहे. याला Indirect किंवा Reported Speech म्हणतात.
२. Indirect वाक्यात भूतकाळ आलेला आहे.
3. Indirect TRACT अवतरण चिन्हे (inverted commas) आलेले नाहीत.
४. Direct वाक्यात said to आलेले आहे तर Indirect वाक्यात त्याचे told झालेले आहे.
५. पहिल्या वाक्यात You आलेले आहे तर दुसऱ्या वाक्यात त्याचे she झालेले आहे.
६. पहिल्या वाक्यात today आलेले आहे; दूसऱ्या वाक्यात त्याचे that day झालेले आहे.
वरील सर्व मुद्यांची सविस्तर चर्चा पुढे दिलेली आहे.

Direct चे Indirect होताना खालील बदल घडतात
1. दिलेल्या काळात भूतकाळाची भर पडते. म्हणजेच indirect वाक्यातील reporting verb भूतकाळात असेल तर इतर क्रियापदे देखील भूतकाळात येतात. उदा.
Direct : He said to Ram, “You are lazy".
Indirect : He told Ram that he was lazy.
Direct वाक्यात साधा भूतकाळ असेल तर indirect वाक्यात त्याचा

पूर्ण भूतकाळ होतो. 
उदा.
Direct : He said to Ram, "We laughed to everybody".
Indirect : He told Ram that they had laughed to everybody.

2. Direct चे Indirect होताना काळ कधी बदलत नाही?
• Reporting verb साध्या वर्तमानकाळात, पूर्ण वर्तमानकाळात (say, has said) किंवा भविष्यकाळात (will say) असेल तर Indirect
Direct: Ravindra says, "I am happy".
Indirect : Ravindra says that he is happy.

वाक्यात काळ बदलत नाही.
• संभाषण, पत्रवाचन, सूचनांचे वाचन, सतत तेच विधान करणे इत्यादी कृती चालू असतील आणि तेव्हांच त्या indirect speech मध्ये सांगण्यात येत असतील तर वर्तमानकाळ वापरतात.
उदा.
Direct: Riya (स्टेशनमधून फोनवर) : I'm trying to get a taxi.
Indirect: Ravi (बाजूला उभी असलेल्या किरणला) : Riya is
trying to get a taxi.
Direct: Tom (सतत म्हणत असतो): I'll never get married.
Indirect: Tom says that he'll never get married.

न बदलणाऱ्या परीस्थितीसाठी वर्तमानकाळ आल्यास तो indirect speech मध्ये तसाच राहतो.
उदा.
Direct: Ravi said, "The Taj Mahal is at Agra."
Indirect: Ravi said that the Taj Mahal is at Agra."

• Direct मधील Present Perfect चे Indirect मध्ये Past Perfect होते व Simple Past चे देखील Past Perfect होते. BGT. Direct : He said, " We have helped him". Indirect : He said that they had helped him.

Direct : Ramesh said, “Riya helped me.”
Indirect : Ramesh said that Riya had helped him. .

• परंतु time clause मधील Simple Past Tense व Past Continuous हे indirect मध्ये देखील अनुक्रमे Simple Past व Past Continuous च राहतात. (when च्या उपवाक्यातील काळ राहीलेला आहे परंतु मुख्यउपवाक्यातील साध्याकाळातील क्रियापदाचा
पूर्ण भूतकाळ झालेला आहे.)
उदा.
Direct :He said, "When we were children, we swam a lot.
Indirect:He said that when they were children they had swum a lot.
Direct: He said, “ When I saw them they were playing tennis".
Indirect : He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis. 
(येथे वास्तवातील चालू भूतकाळ बदललेला नाही)

बोलताना जी परिस्थिती होती ती indirect करताना बदललेली नसेल तर direct मधील Simple Past हा indirect मध्ये देखील तसाच रहातो.

उदा.
Direct : She said, “ I decided not to buy the house because it was on the main road".
Indirect : She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on the main road. 

कर्ता + had better हे indirect मध्येदेखील तसेच राहते.
उदा.
Direct: "The children had better go to bed early," said Ravi.
Indirect: Ravi said that the children had better go to bed early.
You had better ने उपदेश, इशारा सुचीत होत असल्यास त्याला आज्ञार्थी वाक्याचे नियम लागू होतात.

3. वाक्यातील सर्वनामे बदलतात : वाक्यातील प्रथम पुरूषी सर्वनामाचा (I, me, my, we, us, our ) बदल बोलणाराप्रमाणे व you, your चा बदल ऐकणाराप्रमाणे होतो. वाक्यात ऐकणारा नसेल तर ऐकणारा व indirect वाक्य कथन करणारा आहे असे गृहीत धरावे.
उदा.
Direct : He said to me, "I shall visit you."
Indirect : He told me that he would visit me.
वरील Direct वाक्यात....
1. बोलणारा He आहे म्हणून या वाक्यातील I चे Indirect वाक्यात He झाले आहे.
li. ऐकणारा me आहे म्हणून या वाक्यातील you चे Indirect वाक्यात me झाले आहे.
Direct # Indirect
बोललेल्या वाक्यातील सर्वनामात पुढील बदल होतात.
करताना बोलणारा He / She असेल तर बोललेल्या वाक्यातील सर्वनाम आणि पुढील बदल होतात

5. वाक्यात ऐकणारा असेल तर said चे told होते, तो नसेल तर said च राहते. ( said म्हणजे म्हणणे तर tell म्हणजे सांगणे.)
6. वाक्यातील .." inverted commas निघून जातात व त्याऐवजी  that येते. Say / tell नंतर कर्म आल्यास that ऐच्छिक असते.
उदा. He said (that) he had lost his umbrella.
Direct : He said to me, “I am happy".
Indirect : He told me that he was happy.

Exercise 28.1: Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech.

1. The old man said, “The whole train is packed.” (1014)
2. Bichkun said, “It'll be better if you move out of this compartment.” (10th)
3. The gentleman said, “I won't trouble you anymore.” (104)
4. "I will try,” the shopkeeper smiled.
5. I whispered, “I'm hungry.” (104)
6. “You're wasting your time,” the rest of the family called to Michael.

प्रश्नार्थी वाक्याचे Indirect करताना

7. Said ऐवजी asked येते. त्यानंतर that येत नाही.
8. Direct वाक्यातील inverted comma, प्रश्नचिन्ह व प्रश्नरचना निघून जाते व वाक्याची रचना विधानार्थी होते व शेवटी पूर्णविराम
Direct : He said, “Where are you going?"
Indirect : He asked where I was going.

9. Wh प्रश्नाचे Indirect करताना asked नंतर wh-शब्द येतो. (Whप्रश्न म्हणजे What, Where, When, Why, Who,Whose, Whom, How पैकी एका शब्दाने सुरू होणारा प्रश्न.)
उदा.
Direct : He asked, “Where are you going?
Indirect : He asked where I was going.

10.Yes / No प्रश्नाचे Indirect करताना asked नंतर whether किंवा if येते. (Yes / No प्रश्न म्हणजे असा प्रश्न ज्याची सुरूवात क्रियापदाने होते व ज्याचे उत्तर Yes किंवा No असते.)
उदा. 
Direct : He said, "Are you happy?"
Indirect : He asked if I was happy.
Indirect He ask + व्यक्ती येऊ शकते परंतु enquire wonder + व्यक्ती येऊ शकत नाही want to know JGT. Direct: He said, “Mary, when is the next train?"
Indirect: He asked Mary when the next train was.
Direct: He said, "When is the next train?"

Exercise 28.2 : Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech.

1. Rani said, “Will you come?"
2. Pritam said to Rani,“ How old are you?"
3. Ravindra said, “What did you do yesterday?"
4. Raju said to Ravi, “ Are you coming with us?"
5. Sometimes his mother would ask: "Reuben, where were you? We were waiting for supper for you."
6. I asked myself: "Why am I wearing myself out with this toil for which I am so preposterously ill-equipped?”
7. The boys said to the gentleman, "Where are you going?"
8. "Why would the management engage me?" he asked. (10")
9. The human asked, "Have there been any problems of any kind?"

आज्ञार्थी वाक्याचे Indirect करताना

आज्ञार्थी वाक्यात विनंती, उपदेश, सूचना, आदेश असतात. आज्ञार्थी वाक्याचे indirect करताना...
i. said sau requested to / ordered to / suggested ..to/ told..to/ asked .. to g. 6 GTRITT.
ii. वाक्यातील काळामध्ये बदल न करता ते तसेच लिहावे

या रचनेला object + infinitive अशी रचना म्हणतात म्हणजेच.... reporting verb + indirect object + infinitive
उदा.
Direct: He said to me, "Go there."
Indirect: He ordered me to go there.

• आज्ञार्थी वाक्यात येणारे reporting verbs: 
खालील सर्व निवेदन करणारी क्रियापदे
 (reporting verbs)  या रचनेत येतात. 
  1. asked (मागणी केली, आमंत्रण दिले, विचारले), 
  2. told (सांगितले), 
  3. agreed (सहमत झाला), 
  4. refused (नकार दिला), 
  5. offered (मदत देऊ केली), 
  6. promised (वचन दिले), 
  7. threatened (धमकी दिली), 
  8. warned (इशारा दिला), 
  9. requested (विनंती केली), 
  10. appealed (आवाहन केले), 
  11. urged (आवाहन केले), 
  12. advised (उपदेश केला), 
  13. ordered (आज्ञा केली), 
  14. commanded (आज्ञा केली) 
  15. accuse of क्रियापदांसोबत 
gerund चे admit / apologize for वापरतात. Gerund म्हणजे deny / insist on क्रियापदाचे रुप जे नाम म्हणून काम suggest करते.

उदा. 
Direct: He said, "You took the money."
Indirect: He accused me of taking the money.
Direct: I said, “I didn't take it."
Indirect: I denied taking it.
Direct: I said, “I'm sorry, I took it."
Indirect: I apologized for taking it.
Direct: "Shall we meet at the theatre?" he said
Indirect: He suggested meeting at the theatre.

इतर अर्थासाठी modal auxiliaries आल्यास indirect मध्ये त्यांची भूतकाळी रुपे येतात किंवा ती आगोदरच भूतकाळी रुपात असल्यास indirect मध्ये तशीच राहतात.

उदा. 
  1. Direct: He said to Ramesh, “I can help you." 
  2. Indirect: He told Ramesh that he could help him.
iii. नकारात्मक आज्ञा असेल तर to पूर्वी not येते.
Direct : He said, "Don't go there".
Indirect : He ordered me not to go there.

iv. आज्ञार्थी वाक्याचे reporting verb हे tell / say असेल वर्तमानकाळात असेल तर व आज्ञार्थी वाक्यात आज्ञेच्या अगोदर claus. आल्यास खालील रचना येते:
subject + be + infinitive
उदा. Direct: He says, “Meet me at the station."
Indirect: He says that we are to meet him at the station.
(Reporting verb 'says' आहे.)
Direct: He said, "If you see Riya tell her to ring me."
(आज्ञेच्या आगोदर clause आलेला आहे.)
Indirect: He told me that if I saw Riya I was to tell her to ring him. .

v. told / said / advised / recommended / urged should म्हणजेच... + that + कर्ता reporting verb + that + af should अशी रचना वापरुन देखील आज्ञार्थी वाक्याचे indirect करता येते.

Direct: He said, "If your brakes are bad don't drive so fast."
Indirect: He told me that if my brakes were bad I shouldn't
सर्वनामे मात्र नियमाप्रमाणे बदलतात. (येथे आज्ञार्थी वाक्याचा object drive so fast.
Direct: “I advise cancelling the meeting," he said.
Indirect: He advised that the meeting should be cancelled.

vi. Let च्या वाक्याचे indirect करताना... . Let's च्या वाक्याचे indirect मध्ये said ऐवजी 'suggested that कर्ता should' किंवा 'suggested + v -ing व बाकीचे वाक्य जसेच्या
तसे' येते. उदा.
Direct : He said, “Let us go". (er TET.)
Indirect : He suggested that we should go.
Direct: He said, “Let's leave the case at the station."
(येथे कर्म आहे.)
Indirect: He suggested leaving the case at the station.
b. Let's चे वाक्य कधी कधी कृती करण्यासाठी हाक देते; अशावेळी
suggested tavi urged / advised + object + infinitive e
उदा. .
Direct: Anna said, "Let's fight against corruption."
Indirect: Anna urged us to fight against corruption.

c. Let him / them z PT 1 or suggested that suggested paf to let सामान्य क्रियापद म्हणून आल्यास (अशा वाक्यात ऐकणारा असतो) कर्ता should व आज्ञा असल्यास कर्ता + be + infinitive येते. 
उदा.
Direct: He said, “I'll not help him, let his parents do it."
Indirect: He suggested that he would not help him and that his parents should do it.
Direct: "Let the boys clear up this mess," said the teacher.
Indirect: The teacher suggested that the boys were to clear up the mess.

d. Let him / them च्या वाक्यात let 'परवानगी द्या' या अर्थी एक व बाकीचे वाक्य जसेच्या तसे होते; पण + infinitive हा नियम येतो.)
उदा.
Direct : He said to Rani, "Let me help you."
Indirect : He suggested Rani to let him help her.

Exercise 28.3 : Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech.

1. Vaibhav said to gauri, "Give me your book."
2. Ravindra said, “Let's help the teacher."
3. Riya said, "Ravi, don't disturb us."
4. Vikas said to the class, "Please, help me."
5. "Come in boys", said the teacher.

उद्गारवाचक वाक्याचे Indirect करताना

i. उद्गारवाचक वाक्याचा विधान वाक्यात बदल करावा.
ii. संबोधनवाचक व उद्गारवाचक शब्द काढून टाकावेत.
iii.Reporting verb said च्या जागी वाक्याचा भाव दर्शविण्यासाठी exclaimed किंवा cried out सारखी क्रियापदे वापरावीत. काही वेळा with joy, with sorrow, with surprise, with fear सारखे शब्द अर्थानूसार वापरावेत. उद्गारवाचक शब्दानंतर that वापरावे.
उदा.
Direct : Vaibhav said, "How beautiful it is!”
Indirect : Vaibhav exclaimed that it was very beautiful.

Direct and Indirect Speech - What's the Difference?

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