Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

1. [A] Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Q:1.Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first Prime Minister of

[a] Bangladesh
[b] Pakistan
[c] Iran
[d] Afghanistan
[a] Bangladesh

Q:2.In 1987, India sent a Peacekeeping Force [IPKF] to

[a] Bangladesh
[b] Sri Lanka
[c] Somalia
[d] Vietnam
[b] Sri Lanka

[B] Identify the incorrect pair in every set and correct it.


[a] NATO – Europe
[b] ANZUS Africa
[c] SEATO – South East Asia
[d] CENTO – West Asia
[c] Sri Lanka – Jayewardene

2. State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Q:1.Myanmar has been a traditional friend of India.

This statement is True.

  • India and Myanmar [formerly Burma] have a long historical and cultural relations. In fact, Burma a part of British India from 1824 to 1937.
  • India established diplomatic relations after Myanmar’s independence in 1948. However, Indo- Myanmar ties got strained since India supported pro-democracy movements in Myanmar against the ruling military Junta. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC and cooperate to counteract drug trafficking and insurgent groups like Arakan Army operating in the border areas.

Q:2.In changing world order of 1990s, the issue of terrorism has been dominant.

This statement is True.
1. Terrorism refers to the use of or the threat to use violence with the intention to destabilise the political system, cause economic harm and panic in society towards the attainment of some religious or ideological goals.
2. Post 1900s, terrorism has become a global phenomenon with forms like cross-border terrorism, international terrorism etc., causing widespread destruction e.g., 2001 attack in the USA by Al-Qaeda, attacks in Bali, Kabul, Mumbai, Madrid, etc. Each Country in the world is involved in trying to secure its territory and deal with terrorism e.g., US led ‘War on Terror’.

Q:3.The Sagarmala project is a more comprehensive road connectivity plan.

This statement is False.

India has sought to harness it’s 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways and strategic location on key international maritime trade routes through two compatible programmes viz. Sagarmala and Bharatmala.
Sagarmala programme aims to promote port and river transport systems and Bharatmala programme is a comprehensive road connectivity plan.

3. Express your opinion of the following.

Q:1. India’s role in the Indian Ocean

  1. The Indian Ocean is one of the most busy and critical maritime transportation links in the world. The economies of littoral countries depend heavily on ports, shipping and vast natural resources. India’s vast coastline of about 7500 km presents both opportunity and challenge to India in terms of security and foreign perspectives. India’s exclusive economic zone is 2.4 million sq. kms. 90% of our trade by volume and almost all oil imports come through the sea. India is a co-founder of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation in 1997 [IORA].
  2. The main objective of IORA is to promote sustained, balanced development of the Indian Ocean region. India has initiated the Sagarmala and Bharatmala programmes to harness India’s coastline.

4. Answer the following

Q:1.Write a note on India’s relations with Africa.

In the first few decades after independence, India supported the fight against apartheid and provided financial and material aid to liberation struggles in Africa for eg., the AFRICA Fund created at the NAM Summit [Harare]
There are several issues in the context of India-African relations-

  1. The India-Africa summit was held in 2015
  2. About 24 percent of Indian crude oil imports are sourced from the African continent e.g., ONGC Videsh has invested in Sudan and Egypt
  3. About two million people in Eastern and Southern Africa constitute the India diaspora which is considered as an asset by the Indian government
  4. Indian industries are interested in offering technological and material services to developing African nations
  5. India continues to be one of the military training destination e.g., National Defence Academy, Pune has the ‘Sudan Block’ as a symbol of cooperation between India and Sudan
  6. Countries from Somalia to South Africa fall under the India maritime strategic perspective. Hence, cases of terrorism and piracy in Somalian waters have made this region sensitive to Indian concerns.

Q:2.Briefly Discuss India-China relations.

  1. In 1949, the Communist revolution took place in China. India was among the first nations to recognize the People’s Republic of China. In 1954, India and China signed the Panchsheel Agreement and India also recognised Chinese suzerainty on Tibet. The main hindrances in Sino- Indian relations are-
  2. 1962 Indo-China war and 2017 Dokhlam skirmish.
  3. Border disputes in Aksai Chin and NEFA region.
  4. China has been critical of India offering political asylum to the Dalai Lama.
  5. Chinese support to Pakistan.
  6. India’s apprehensions about China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
  7. On the positive side India-China relationship has improved
  8. Agreement on maintenance of peace and tranquility along the LOC.
  9. China has become among the largest trading partners of India.
  10. India and China are part of BRICS and SCO.
  11. In the late 1990s, Russia mooted the idea of a Trilateral Summit of Russia, China, India which was a recognition of India’s status as a major regional power.

5. Answer the following Q:with reference to the given points.

Q:1.Explain the factors influencing Indian foreign policy.

[a] Geography
[b] History
[c] International System Economy
[d] Policy
Factors Influencing India’s Foreign Policy-
1. Geography – The extensive coastline of the India peninsula and the Himalayan mountain ranges have shaped India’s security and foreign policy. India shares a border with all neighbouring countries of South Asia. It also holds a dominant position in the India Ocean.
2. History – It includes the influence of traditional cultural values, cultural ties as well as values like anti-colonialism which were imbibed during the freedom struggle.
3. Economy – The strong urge to come out of the poverty and economic backwardness created by the colonial period as well as the policy of Non-Alignment shaped India’s foreign policy. India followed democratic socialism through the policy of import-substitution and importance to the public sector Post-1991, after adopting the policy of Liberalisation, Privatisation, and Globalisation many changes have occurred in the Indian foreign policy.
4. Polity – Political leadership has a significant impact on India’s foreign policy for e.g., Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Narendra Modi have played a decisive role in determining India’s foreign policy. Ministry of External Affairs and National Security Advisor plays an important role in formulating foreign policy.


Read the speech on Indian Foreign Policy given by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on All India Radio on 7th September 1946 and discuss it in class.

Activity [Text Book Page No. 60]

The First Summit Meeting of the Nonaligned countries at Belgrade [1961] finalized the criterion for nonalignment. Find out these criteria.
Non-Aligned Movement:
The first summit of Non-Aligned countries was held in September 1961 at Belgrade and attended by representatives of 25 countries. The purpose of the Non-Aligned Movement [NAM] was to help countries keep “national sovereignty, territorial integrity and security in their struggle against imperialism, colonialism, racism and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination or interference as well as against great power and bloc politics”.

The objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement are-
  1. To keep the newly independent nations of Asia and Africa away from the rivalry of the two viz. USA and Soviet Union
  2. To oppose colonialism, imperialism, and racial discrimination.
  3. To eliminate all those factors and tendencies in the international arena that could lead to war.
  4. To advocate the sovereign equality of all States.
  5. To oppose the use of force and nuclear weapons in international disputes.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

The evolution of Indian foreign policy can be traced back to the period before independence. It was an actor in international relations even as a British colony. It participated in the Bretton Woods Conference that created the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. It also was a part of the San Francisco Conferences that gave final shape to the Charter of the United Nations. Post-independence Indian foreign policy was a continuation of the legacy of the British policy in some cases; whereas in some others, it took positions which were completely different from the British. We begin this chapter with understanding the Objectives and Principles, as well as the factors that influence the foreign policy of India.

Objectives of Indian Foreign policy

 An important objective of Indian foreign policy is to maintain international peace and security. It has been incorporated as a Directive Principle of State Policy in Part IV Article 51 of the Constitution of India. It states that the Government of India shall strive for the promotion and maintenance of international peace and security. Further, since independence, India aspired to emerge as a major power and play an influential role in international politics. 

 The objectives of Indian foreign policy include protection of the sovereignty and integrity of the country, promoting economic growth and development, and ensuring national security in a broader sense. Since the 1990s, India has adopted the policy of greater integration with the world economy in order to sustain a high growth rate. As a result, good relations with neighbouring countries, strengthening relations with regional groups (such as ASEAN or EU), ensuring peace and order in the Indian Ocean and the Indo-Pacific regions are also some important objectives of contemporary foreign policy of India.

Principles of India’s Foreign policy

There are some fundamental ideas that act as guidelines to foreign policy-makers in India. They are listed below:
• Sovereign Equality of states. 
• Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states. 
• Non-intervention in the internal affairs of any other state . 
• Respect for International Law 
• Active participation in International and Regional Organisations 
• Belief in peaceful co-existence and peaceful resolution of international disputes

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s speech of 7 September 1946, given on the All India Radio spelt out the core features of India’s foreign policy. He stated: ‘We propose, as far as possible, to keep away from the power politics of groups, aligned against one another, which have led in the past to world wars and which may again lead to disasters on an even wider scale’. He also hoped to have friendly relations with England and invited the United States and the Soviet Union to become friends. He hoped that the past friendship with China would continue in the future. About India’s position in Asia he said: ‘We are of Asia and people of Asia are nearer and closer to us than others. India’s position is important in terms of Western, Southern and South East Asia’.


Nonalignment has been an important feature of India’s foreign policy. Non-alignment literally means not to be a part of any military alliance. It was India’s response to the Cold War politics of the two super powers. The United States and the Soviet Union attempted to extend their respective ‘sphere of influence’ through promoting military alliances in Europe, Asia and elsewhere in the world.

Unlike many countries in the world that chose to align with an alliance by one of the two super powers; India chose to remain “nonaligned”. It followed a policy of maintaining ‘equidistance’ from both the super powers. The idea and policy of Non-Alignment is the contribution of India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. After the end of the cold war questions were raised about the relevance of nonalignment. It must be noted that the essential features of nonalignment viz. independent foreign policy and peaceful approach are still relevant today.

Factors influencing India’s Foreign policy

Geographical factors :

Its vast coastline in the South and the presence of Himalayan mountain ranges to the north and the northeast have shaped India’s perspective of foreign and security policy. Similarly, the presence of a large country like China across almost the entire north and northeastern border also affects India’s foreign policy. 

The unique geography of South Asia-while all neighbouring countries share a border with India, none share a border with each other-shapes the foreign policy too. India holds a dominant position in the Indian Ocean. It has an extensive coast line with Lakshdweep Islands in the west and Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the East. 

Historical factors :

 This includes the impact of India’s traditional cultural values, such as peace and co-existence. It also includes the influence of historical cultural ties with the neighbouring civilisations in West, Central and Southeast Asia on India’s foreign policy. Some of the basic values of Indian foreign policy like anti-colonialism and anti-racialism were laid during the freedom struggle.

Economical factors : 

The policy of NonAlignment has a political, economic and strategic context. There was a strong urge to come out of poverty and backwardness that had emerged from the colonial period. India refused to accept financial aid from various donor countries, if it came with conditions unacceptable to India. 

The policy of import-substitution and giving importance to public sector enterprises had a tremendous impact on India’s foreign policy. Many fundamental changes have occurred in foreign policy of India after adopting the policy of Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation in the post 1991 era. 

Political factors :

 The Executive organ of Government plays an important role in making and implementing the foreign policy in India. Parliament plays the role of watchdog. Political leadership makes significant impact on foreign relations of India. Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, P.V. Narasimha Rao, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Manmohan Singh and Narendra Modi have played a decisive role in determining the foreign policy of India. The Ministry of External Affairs plays a pivotal role in drafting the foreign policy and giving advice to the political executive. Besides this, the National Security Advisor plays an important role in making foreign policy. 

International System : 

During the Cold War, the bipolar system and super power politics had impacted the foreign policy of India. Similarly, there were major changes in Indian foreign policy when the Cold War ended. Besides the international system, the regional system has also made a deep impact on India’s foreign policy. Thus, Indo-US dialogue in the post-cold war era, China-Pakistan dialogue since the 1960s and improved Russia-China relations since the late 1990s have influenced foreign policy.

India’s Relations with the World

Foreign policy is the instrument of a country to establish, maintain and develop relations with the rest of the world. Since independence, India has established relations with nearly all the countries in the world. It is not necessary, nor possible, to have equally good or close relations with all countries. With some countries, the relations are closer or better than with some others. 

Usually, relations with neighbouring countries are important for the foreign policy of every country. Relations with major world powers are important for all countries. In this section, we will take a broad survey of relations of India with all the three major powers and India’s neighbours.   

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

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