The World Since 1991 Exercise | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 Question Answer

The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 Question Answer

The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991Question Answer

1. [A] Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Q: 1. One of the important trends in the post-1989 international relations was

[a] End of bipolarity
[b] Rise of regionalism in Asia
[c] End of non-alignment
[d] Demand for a new international economic order
[a] End of bipolarity

Q: 2. The ‘Maastricht’ Treaty is with reference to

[a] United Nations Peace Keeping Force
[b] European Union
[c] American interventions in Kuwait
[d] Creation of BRICS
[b] European Union

1. [B] State the appropriate concept for the given statements.

Q: 1. When a State influences other States without the use of military force.

Soft power

Q: 2. A State with a leading position in international politics with abilities to influence global politics and fulfill its own interest.

Super power

2. [A] Complete the concept maps.

The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991Question Answer

The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991Question Answer

Q: 2
The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991Question Answer
The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991Question Answer

2. [B] Observe the maps in the textbook and answer the following Q:s.

The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991Question Answer

Q: 1. Name any four countries in the Schengen area.

Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, France.

Q: 2. Name any two non-European Union countries within Schengen area.

Norway, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia.

3. State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Q: 1. SAARC is important for trade in South Asia.

This statement is True.
[i] SAARC has eight member States from South Asia. It aims to accelerate economic growth and promote the welfare of the people of South Asia.
[ii] In 1993, South Asian Association for Preferential Trade Agreement [SAPTA] came into existence. It was replaced in 2006 by South Asian Association Free Trade Area [SAFTA]. This helps in trade and economic activity in the region.

Q: 2. ‘Maastricht’ Treaty was signed for the defence of Europe.

This statement is False.
[i] On 7th February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union.
[ii] This treaty led to the expansion of spheres of cooperation in internal affairs, foreign policies and defence policies.

Q: 3. The decade of 1980s is seen as the golden age of humanitarian intervention.

This statement is False.
[i] The 1990s are seen as the ‘golden age of humanitarian intervention.’ In 1993, the World Conference on Human Rights was held in Vienna, which led to the creation of the office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
[ii] Increasing awareness about human rights and their protection in international law gave rise to the phenomenon for protection of rights in the form of ‘humanitarian intervention’.

4. Express your opinion of the following.

Q: 1.Humanitarian intervention

  1. One of the main purposes of the UN is maintenance of international peace, security and cooperation. UN Peacekeeping Force comprises of military personnel and resources sent by member States. In the post-cold war era, the UN rationale for intervention was not just to stop ongoing wars but also to prevent reoccurrence of conflicts and protect the human rights of the affected people. The UN intervened in Cambodia, Somalia, Yugoslavia, East Timor, Eritrea, Syria, etc., for this purpose.
  2. In 1993, over 170 nations participated in the World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna to reaffirm their commitment to protect human rights. The office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was created to coordinate human rights initiatives. The increasing awareness about human rights protection in international law gave rise to humanitarian intervention especially in conflict zones. NGO’s have contributed significantly in the spread of humanitarian intervention for e.g. ICRC, Oxfam, etc. The 1990s are described as “golden age” of humanitarian intervention.

Q: 2. Regionalism in international politics.

Countries which lie in geographical proximity create or join regional organisations which are based on common political, ideological, economic and infrastructural concerns. Some nations make special agreements regarding trade and economic cooperation. This is called a trade bloc.

[i] European Union [EU] was created in 1992 by Maastricht Treaty. It led to increased spheres of cooperation between European nations e.g. foreign affairs, defense, trade and creation of Euro as a common currency. Creation of Schengen Area is one of the achievements of the EU since the Schengen visa allows eligible individuals to travel freely within the 26 nations of the Schengen area.

[ii] ASEAN created in 1967 with headquarters at Jakarta comprises of 10 South-East Asian nations such as Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, etc. It aims to promote political economic and security cooperation among it’s members.

[iii] SAARC formed in 1985 at Dhaka with 7 members. Today, it has 8 member countries of South Asia like India, Bhutan, Pakistan, etc. It aims to promote regional integration and economic development. It’s main achievement is the SAFTA.

[iv] BIMSTEC – is a regional organisation founded in 1997 comprising of 7 member countries lying around Bay of Bengal for e.g. Bangladesh, India, Thailand, Myanmar. It aims to facilitate collaboration in economic, security and other concerns between member States.

[v] Shanghai Cooperation Organisation [SCO] is an Eurasian political, economic and security organisation formed in 2001 with 6 member states. In 2016, India and Pakistan joined SCO. It’s focus is on maintaining peace and stability in the region, cooperation in trade, technology, etc.

Regional organisations play an important role in international politics. Due to this, unipolarity [US as the only superpower] ended leading to multipolarity.

5. Answer the Following.

Q: 1. Explain the term soft power with examples.

According to American academic, Joseph Nye there are two types of power viz. hard power and soft power.
[i] Hard power is the ability to get others to act in ways that are contrary to their preferences and wills. It is the ability to coerce through threats and inducements for e.g.,Iraq invasion of Kuwait.

[ii] Soft power is when a country influences other countries without the use of military force. It is the ability to get others to want the outcomes that you want i.e. through attraction rather than coercion. Such influence is spread through economic, socio-cultural means.

Soft power was an important aspect of US domination. It implied the use of monetary aid, cooperative programmes, cultural exchanges, strong relations with allies. Examples of US soft power are cultural exports like fast food chains, movies, educational exchange programmes as well as disaster assistance programmes such as tsunami relief [Japan], flood control [Pakistan].

6. Answer the following Q: in detail with help of given points.

Q: 1. Discuss the European Union with help of given points.

[a] History
[b] European Commission
[c] European Parliament
[d] European Council
[e] European Court of Justice
[a] History – The European Coal and Steel Community [ECSC] and European Economic Community [EEC] were created to foster economic interdependence. On 7th February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union. This led to expansion of spheres of cooperation to include internal affairs, judicial matters, foreign policy, etc. The Euro [€] is the official currency of 19 out of 28 countries of the EU. These nations are collectively called ‘Eurozone’.
[b] European Commission – The Commission is the executive bureaucratic arm of the EU. It is mainly responsible for drawing up proposals for new European legislation,and it implements the policy decisions of the European Parliament and the Council of the EU.
[c] European Parliament – The European Parliament is composed of 751 Members, who are directly elected every five years. It is a body entrusted with legislative, supervisory, and budgetary responsibilities.
[d] European Council – The structure of the European Council consists of the Presidents or Prime Ministers of each member State, accompanied by their foreign ministers, and a full¬time President of the European Council. The European Council meets four times a year and provides strategic leadership for the EU.
[e] European Court of Justice [ECJ] – The ECJ interprets, and adjudicates on, EU law and treaties. As EU law has primacy over the national law of EU member States.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991


Find out the role played by India in BRICS [Text Book Page No. 13]

BRICS refers to five major emerging national economies, i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. It accounts for about 40% of the world’s population and 20% of the GDP. It is an emerging investment market and global power bloc. India serves a multi faceted role on the economic and political fronts.

[i] New Development Bank [NDB] was proposed by India during the BRICS summit in New Delhi. It was established in 2014 and intends to provide non conditional financing. India has contributed $ 10 billion to the NDB to refurbish industrial bases in Brazil and South Africa. There is a regional office of NDB in India.

[ii] In 2012, India introduced “security” on the agenda, as the theme of the summit in New Delhi was BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Security and Prosperity.

[iii] India has also highlighted climate governance at BRICS meeting.

[iv] BRICS membership elevates India’s global profile for e.g., India has assumed the role of a trade facilitator in Africa and South Asia. It aims to promote intra-BRICS trade, which means urging member nations to import goods mainly from each other.

[v] India is seen as a strong voice at BRICS and the UN against proposals and actions that could harms any member’s interests for e.g., India turned down China’s proposal to invite Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Mexico into the BRICS to focus only on development within current members.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 Intext Q:s and Answers

ACTIVITY [Text Book Page No. 7]

Q: 1. What is One Belt One Road and China Pakistan Economic Corridor policy of China?

One Belt One Road also called OBOR or Belt and Road Initiative [BRI] since 2016, is a global development strategy adopted by the Chinese government in 2013 involving infrastructure development and investments in nearly 70 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa. It is an ambitious economic development and commercial project that focuses on improving cooperation among multiple countries.

BRI involves building a network of roadways, railways, power grids, maritime ports, oil and gas pipelines and associated infrastructure projects. The project covers two parts i.e., Silk Road Economic Belt [land based] and expects to connect China with Central Asia, East and West Europe to connect China with Central Asia, East and West Europe] and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road [sea based and connects China to Africa, South East Asia, Mediterranean] BRI consists of six economic corridors such as China-Pakistan corridor, China- Indochina Peninsula corridor etc.

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor [CPEC] launched in 2015 is a part of the greater OBOR. It is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan for e.g., special economic zones, ports, energy projects, etc. The Gwadar Port [Balochistan province of Pakistan] which is considered the deepest seaport in the world is considered to be significant in the BRI. India has objected to the CPEC as upgrade works to the Karakoram Highway are taking place in Gilgit Baltistan [which is Indian territory] and will undermine India’s security and position in the region.

Q: 2. Who are the members of the European Union? [Text Book Page No.9]

There are 27 countries who are members of European Union. These are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. UK was a member but left in January 2020.

The following countries are part of Eurozone.
Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The Eurozone is the monetary union of 19 out of 27 countries of the EU i.e., those who have Euro [€] as their common currency. The other 8 EU countries continue to use their national currencies.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Q: 3. Discuss the case of Brexit. [Text Book Page No. 11]

British Exit i.e., Brexit is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. In June 2016, 52% voted to leave the EU following a UK wide referendum. The UK finally left the EU on 31st January 2020.
The main reasons for Brexit were-
[i] EU threatens British sovereignty and prevents radical reforms.
[ii] The Euro has been a disaster and caused the Greek economic crisis.
[iii] UK could have a more rational immigration system outside the EU as the EU allows too many immigrants.

Brexit is a rejection of globalisation. The European Union signified a move from a single market to a single currency, a single banking system and eventually a single political entity. Many persons argue that Brexit goes against the concept of globalisation, i.e., it symbolizes a protest against the economic model that has been in place since 1992.

Many voters feel that globalisation has benefited only a small elite and hanker for a return to the security provided by the nation-States i.e., jobs, living standards, welfare facilities seemed better protected in the nation-States prior to globalisation for e.g., unemployment across the Eurozone is more than 10% and Italy, Greece, etc., are facing economic crisis.

The World Since 1991 Notes| Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 notes

In the XIth standard we studied international developments from 1945 to 1991. In this chapter we will look at the changes that have taken place in the post 1991 era. In November 1989, the Berlin Wall fell and after that the process of Disintegration of Soviet Union started. Eventually, in 1991, Cold War ended with the disintegration of Soviet Union. It also ended the East- West division of the world that was based on the rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union. The developments in the post-cold war period can be analyzed through five major consequences:

(i) End of Cold War and rise of new states : The end of Cold War led to the end of an international order dominated by the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. It also saw the emergence of new states after the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

(ii) Emergence of Unipolarity : The Cold War between United States and the Soviet Union came to end signaling the end of bipolarity. This led to the emergence of a unipolar world order dominated by the United States.

(iii) Human Rights and Humanitarian intervention : There was an increasing awareness about human rights and also a rise in intervention for humanitarian purposes.

(iv) Terrorism : The nature of terrorism changed after the 11 September 2001 attacks (also known as 9/11 attacks) against the United States.

(v) Multipolarity and Regionalism : This phase primarily saw the rise of China and India, the growing importance of the Indo-Pacific region and also the rise of Russia under Vladimir Putin. These developments and the growth of regionalism brought in multipolarity in the world order. Regions and regional organisations started to become more important. 

End of Cold War and Rise of New States We can see two important trends in international relations since the East European revolution of 1989. The first is the assertion of the concept of ethnic nationalism based on right to self-determination and the second is the end of bipolarity. Bipolarity existed because of the existence of the two superpowers, United States and the Soviet Union. The world was divided into two centers of power. The disintegration of the Soviet Union ended one of the centers of power. Therefore, the disintegration of the Soviet Union meant the end of bipolarity in the world. The revolution of the East European states was a revolution of growing aspirations of the middle class. They desired more freedom and economic well-being. They rose against the communist governments that were controlled by the Soviet Union and emerged as free democratic states. Even within the Soviet Union the movement for more political and economic freedom led to the various states demanding more autonomy and eventually independence. Meanwhile, the ethnic identity of the various people of the region became stronger. This led to the demand for the creation of independent states based on ethnic identity

Towards a Unipolar World  

In 1990, Iraq went in for a war against Kuwait and established control over its territory. There was a global reaction against it and the matter was discussed in the United Nations. The United States took the initiative and led a multinational force against Iraq. The war ended with Kuwait becoming free from Iraqi control. The then American President George H. Bush considered this as a moral victory and used the term ‘New World Order’ to describe the nature of the global situation. This American action had received global support, including from the Soviet Union, China, countries of the NATO, Israel, and the Arab States including Saudi Arabia. The Soviet Union which was facing internal problems disintegrated in 1991.

There wasn’t much ideological opposition against the United States and eventually the meaning of the term ‘New World Order’ which implied American dominance and leadership in matters of security was accepted at the global level. This was the first expression of the unipolar world order.

The United States emerged as a dominant country. American dominance had political and economic dimensions. Politically, the American model of liberal-democratic governance was readily accepted and adopted by several post-communist states of Eastern Europe and elsewhere. The concept of good governance was linked to democracy. In economic sphere, socialist system of economy was given up by most of the countries. One of the other aspects about American domination was the use of American ‘soft power’. Soft power is when you influence the other countries without the use of military force. The influence is spread through economic, social, cultural and other similar means.

Human Rights and Humanitarian interventions :

The process of disintegration of states and the creation of new states was not always peaceful. In Yugoslavia, for example, there was a lot of bloodshed in Bosnia Herzegovina between different ethnic groups. Conflicts also occurred in Chechnya, East Timor and Eritrea. It is in response to such situations that people started to be concerned about the violation of human rights. The United Nations, an important global organisation would intervene in countries to prevent conflict from escalating. This is one of the main tasks of UN Peacekeeping.

 In the post-cold war era, the United Nations continued to intervene in conflict situations to bring about a peaceful resolution of the dispute. But now the rationale for intervention was not just to stop the ongoing  war but also prevent the reoccurrence of conflicts in future, maintain peace and protect the human rights of the affected people. The United Nations intervened in Cambodia, Somalia and Yugoslavia for this purpose. The increasing awareness about human rights and their protection in international law gave rise to a new phenomenon for protection of rights in the form of 'humanitarian intervention'. The 1990s are sometimes seen as the golden age of humanitarian intervention. 

Multipolarity and Regionalism 

The world order was dominated by the United States in the post-cold war era. The American military and economic might was unchallenged during this time. This made it the only superpower. However, economic rise and military capabilities are not the only criteria to become and remain a superpower. It is the amalgamation of both hard power and soft power that shapes a country to become a world power. While hard power relies on coercion, military force and economic sanctions, soft power includes social, economic, cultural influence, values and tradition. In recent times, the dominant position of the United States has been directly or indirectly challenged. 

For instance, the economic and regional integration in Europe through the creation of European Union (EU); the rise of Asia through the presence of China and Japan followed by India in the global world order; the military resurgence of Russia and the growing importance of new regional organisations have come to define a shift from a unipolar to a multipolar world order. China has posed a formidable challenge to the unipolar world led by the United States. China’s rise to global prominence can be attributed to its rapid economic progress since the introduction of economic reforms in the mid-1970s under Deng Xiaoping’s leadership. 

The most dramatic phase of which began only in the 1990s. China has increased its sphere of influence through its ambitious economic projects such as One Belt One Road and China Pakistan Economic Corridor and aims to create a sphere of influence in Central and East Asian regions. Furthermore, Chinese opening to Africa shows that their dream goes beyond neighbouring countries. Militarily, China is ambitiously building up its naval and air power in order to back up its claims in the South China Sea

Russia has made substantial progress in oil and gas production. Russia has emerged as an energy superpower. Economic stability has renewed the sense of national pride leading to military assertiveness in recent times. Russia continues to influence Central and Eastern Europe and it is a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).  

Today the Indo-Pacific region is gaining importance. Economic growth in Asia, led by China and other countries like India and Japan; conflicts in the South China Sea; the importance of ASEAN and American interest in the Pacific region has contributed to the importance of this region. India is likely to play an important role in this region in the future.

Discuss the case of Brexit. 

In 2016, the people of United Kingdom (UK) voted to leave the European Union in a referendum. The UK formally ended its membership of the EU at midnight of Friday, 31 January 2020. This is called Brexit. Brexit is an assertion of British sense of nationalism. This shows that the concept of State very much relevant. Have a discussion in class in this context on the basis of the following questions: Why did Britain want to exit from the European Union? Does the vote in favour of Brexit go against the concept of globalisation


The World Since 1991 Exercise  | Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 Question Answer

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