Political Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Question Answers | Chapter 4 Political Science Class 12 Notes

Political Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Question Answers | Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration

Political Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Question Answers | Chapter 4 Political Science Class 12 Notes

1. [A] Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Q:1.The article had granted a ‘special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

[a] 352
[b] 360
[c] 370
[d] 110
[c] 370

Q:2.Left-wing Extremism originated in 1967 in

[a] Nagaland
[b] Jharkhand
[c] Gadchiroli
[d] Naxalbari
[d] Naxalbari

[B] Identify the incorrect pair in every set and correct it.


[a] Naxalism - Red Corridor
[b] CPI [Maoist] - Uri attacks
[c] Assam - Sons-of-soil movement
[b] Jaish-e-Mohammed - Uri attacks


[a] Boko Haram - Ireland
[b] LTTE - Sri Lanka
[c] ETA - Spain
[a] Boko Haram - Nigeria
IRA - Ireland

[C] Complete the following statements by using appropriate reason.

Q:1.The left wing extemists prevent execution and implementation of developmental work, because ……………..

[i] they are against government.
[ii] the opposition parties ask them to do so.
[iii] they want to show that the government structure at field level is ineffective.
[ii] the opposition parties ask them to do so.

Q:2.In 1990’s Kashmiri Pandits migrated from Kashmir valley, because …………………..

[i] they weren’t from Kashmir.
[ii] there was growth in Islamic militancy.
[iii] there were no job opportunities for them.
[i] they weren’t from Kashmir.

2. [A] Find the odd word.

Q:1. Terrorism, Naxalism, Nationalism, Extremism.

Nationalism [not a violent activity]

[B] State the appropriate concept for the given statements.

Q:1.Threat use violence with an intention to create panic in the society.


Q:2.Involvement of people in decision making process of State.

Good Governance

3. [A] Complete the concept maps.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 4 Contemporary India Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration 1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 4 Contemporary India Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration 2

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 4 Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration

[B] State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Q:1.Democracy is required to establish national integration and social transformation.

This statement is True.
  • Democracy and national integration are complementary, since the core of the structural aspect of national consolidation is the democratic system of governance.
  • Participation of diverse socio-cultural groups in the process of governance is possible only through a representative democratic system. Democracy helps in political participation and social transformation by removing ethnic, caste and gender inequality.

Q:2.National movement in India played an important role in national integration.

This statement is True.
  • The national freedom movement extended across the length and breadth of the country and involved people of different religions, regions and cultures.
  • It played a vital role in bringing Indians together emotionally and politically into a nation and integrating them in a common frame work of political identity and loyalty.
  • Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 4 Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration

4. Explain the correlation between the following.

Q:1.National Unity and Regional Aspirations

  1. National Unity is possible when citizens of that State exhibit psychological oneness, solidarity and shared values. It is not homogeneity but a form of ethnic, religious and linguistic acceptance. 
  2. Regional aspirations occur in forms like demand for separate States, language issues, etc., Regional aspirations have their roots in historical/linguistic/cultural issues or may be a product of regional political outfits. 
  3. Sometimes, regional aspirations may even become secessionist as in case of Khalistan movement. India has tried to reconcile regional aspirations with national unity by creating a federation with a strong centre, creating of smaller States as well as the linguistic reorganisation of States.

5. Express your opinion of the following.

Q:1.Peace and stability are necessary for the nation’s progress.

  1. Peace, stability and public order are necessary for nation’s progress and good life of citizens. An unruly society will lead to violence, loss of life, destruction of property, economic and political instability. 
  2. Conflict resolution is linked to maintenance of law, order and peace. In the absence of order and stability, divisive tendencies will prevail, infrastructure will be targeted, investments will be discouraged thus becoming a barrier to economic growth. 
  3. At a basic level, political stability is ensured using constitutional machinery and socio-economic development. In case of any problem occurring, the State tries to resolve it peacefully. In case the issue escalates or becomes violent, the State may employ force if necessary.

6. Answer the following Q:in 80 to 100 words.

Q:1.What is Left Wing Extremism in India?

Left Wing Extremism [also called Maoist movement or Naxalism] has major support base among landless labourers, dalits and tribals who experience a sense of oppression, injustice and neglect. The first attempt to promote a peasant struggle was the Telangana Movement [1946-51]. The Naxal Movement originated in 1967 in Naxalbari [West Bengal] led by Kanu Sanyal and writings of Charu Majumdar.

Since 1980s the movement has taken a militant turn. In 2004 CPI [M-L], People’s War Group [PWG] and Maoist Communist Centre [MCC] of India merged to form CPI [Maoist] which aims to overthrow the government, Naxal activities aim to destroy public property and attack police and officials. The Red Corridor of naxal activities extends across States like Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, etc.

Some of their broad tactics are as follows:

Use of propaganda slogans
Establishment of mass movements
Mobilisation of women, tribals and minorities into the revolution
Mobilisation of urban population on mass issues
Develop appropriate forms of military organisation

Q:2.Explain cross border terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir.

The India Independence Act [1947] provided that princely States [562 existed then] could decide to join either Pakistan or remain independent. Maharaja Hari Singh of the Dogra dynasty delayed such a decision. In 1947, Kashmir’s population was 77% Muslim and 20% Hindu. The problem in
the region began when Pakistan sent Pashtun tribal raiders in October 1947 to force Hari Singh to join Pakistan. However, the Maharaja appealed to India for help and signed the Instrument of Accession making the State as a part of India.

The Government of India sent troops to the region to drive away the infiltrators. This led to the first India-Pakistan conflict [1947-48]. In 1965, Pakistan attacked India but the local Kashmiri population did not support Pakistan. In 1965, Amanullah Khan created the Plebiscite Front in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. It’s militant wing i.e., National Liberation Front carried out sabotage activities in Jammu and Kashmir.

In 1977, the Plebiscite Front was renamed Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front [JKLF]. Similarly, Pakistan lent support to guerilla outfits in the region like Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. In the 1990s, as instances of militancy increased, the minority Pandit population was forced to flee from Kashmir. 

At this time, local insurgency grew into terrorism sponsored by Pakistan and having training camps in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Pan-Islamic terrorist groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Hizbul, etc., and several Pakistan based persons like Hafeez Sayed have promoted terror activities and radicalisation of the local population. In recent years stone pelting by young protestors has increased.

7. Answer the following in 150 to 200 words.

Explain the role of the State with help of given points.
[a] Peace and order
[b] Economic development
[c] National Building
[d] Governance
[e] Welfare

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 4 Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration

A democratic society is likely to have a diversity of views. Such a diversity arises from a variety of socio-economic, political and cultural factors. In India, the situation is further complicated by factors such as caste, religion, poverty, illiteracy, demographic pressures, ethnic and linguistic diversity. The country has witnessed many disturbances – agrarian unrest, labour and student agitations, communal riots and caste related violence. 

A lack of good governance and poor implementation of laws are the major factors for public disorder. Public order, stability and peace implies a harmonious state of society. It implies the absence of disturbance, riot, revolt, and lawlessness. Maintenance of law and order is universally recognised as the prime function of the State. Peace and stability are one of the crucial requirements for the political, economic and socio-cultural development of the State. 

The lack of it is likely to lead to divisive tendencies in the state. It is the function of the State to ensure that there is peace and stability and that the nation remains united. In any state there are likely to be diverse groups in the society, establishment of a dialogue between them is also an initiative that the State would be expected to take. This is the process of nation building and national integration.

Nation, Nationalism and State, are among the foundational concepts in political science. We have studied these in Std. XI. Let us revise a few important points regarding these: 

 Nation is a community that is bound together by a feeling of unity and oneness based on certain factors. They are people who identify socially, culturally, politically and want to establish a separate identity for themselves. There is a sense of oneness that is psychological and born out of commonness of culture, ethnicity, religion, language, history, etc.

Nationalism is a sense of political identity. They gain a sense of identity and selfesteem by this identification. It is a force that creates the feeling of oneness in a community based on ethnicity, race, religion, language or any other factors.

When people of a nation want to become a sovereign country, it means they are demanding the right to self-determination. It is this urge for political selfdetermination that leads a nation in the direction of statehood. When does a nation become a state? A State must have the following characteristics to qualify for statehood : sovereignty; independent government, territory and population.

A State may have people belonging to different ethnicity, race, religion, language, etc. These people may have a sense of their own identity. But they desire to come together to create a State. Most of the States in the world are multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-racial, etc. They are multi-cultural pluralist entities. The basic problem that any state would face therefore, is the problem of national unity, integrity and consolidation. This problem is the problem of national integration. 

What is the role of the State? The values of nationalism, secularism, and democracy and goals of, economic development and social change are the ones that determine the role of the State. This role may be described as follows

(i) Peace and Order : The State ensures peace and order in the society. The core purpose of the State is protection. This role has also been described as ‘state building’. The survival of the political system may be threatened from international or domestic environment. The maintenance of security and survival of the state, its constitution and political order is one of the key roles of the State

(ii) Economic Development : The State is expected to intervene in the economic life for the purpose of promoting industrial and agricultural growth and economic development. Economic stability and growth would ensure the economic wellbeing of the people. This does not imply creating a Socialist System and Planning. It implies that the State must be a facilitator of economic development.

(iii) Nation Building : This refers to the problem of ensuring that the diversity in a society does not lead to disintegration of the State. Nation Building is closely associated with the idea of national integration

(iv) Governance : Involvement of the members of the society in the decisionmaking process of the State is good governance. This is sometimes referred to as ‘democratisation’ or the creation of a ‘participatory state’. 

(v) Welfare : This refers to the application of the principles of social justice, fairness and equality. The State is expected to rectify the imbalances in the society so that the marginalised sections of the society do not suffer.

The values of nationalism, secularism, and democracy and goals of economic development and social change are essentially those associated with nation building. The problem of national integration is universal. It involves a dialogue and reconciliation of all diversities to build up a common national identity. These diversities may be of socio-cultural, regional, religious, linguistic and economic nature. Such an identity may be labelled as nationalism. In its effort of creating a common national identity nationalism tries to promote the forces of unity in the nation. It seeks to reconcile the differences and forge a national rather than a sectoral perspective.

National integration does not wipe out the individual or group identities of various sections of the society. It does not try to create a homogeneous society. It only believes in creating a territorial nationality which overshadows subordinate group identities. For example, when we say we are Indians, it is a territorial nationality of being an Indian in the country of India.

 The subordinate identities of being a Marathi, Tamil, Punjabi, Hindu, Sikh, Muslim, Christian, etc are not eliminated. They remain subordinate to the territorial national identity of being an Indian. The American use the word ‘salad bowl’ to describe their socio-political system. The task of a nation, thus, is to recognise the regional, ethnic, linguistic, religious, etc. diversity and seek to preserve, consolidate and strengthen its unity. This in essence is the problem of national integration.


In 1947 when India became independent it faced several problems, they included economic underdevelopment, poverty, illiteracy, social inequality, etc. The national movement for independence had provided India with certain values and goals that were to be the basis of nation building after independence. These values were of nationalism, secularism, and democracy and goals were the economic development and social change. The first task of India after independence was to preserve, consolidate and strengthen India’s unity. Indian unity could not be taken for granted, it had to be strengthened by recognising India’s regional, ethnic, linguistic diversity. 

This was the problem of national integration or integration of Indian people as a political community. Democracy was considered essential for promoting national integration and bringing about social change. It was believed that economic development and democratic political order with social change would help in reducing poverty and removing caste and gender inequality. The newly independent state of India had to take deliberate steps to integrate the nascent nation. One was the structural aspect of national integration. This was done through the constitutional process. 

The Constitution of India provided some key features that promoted national unity and national identity. The second was the psychological dimension that sought to promote the feeling of Indian nationalism. People who had various types of identities began to be united under the common umbrella of Indian nationalism from the latter part of the nineteenth century. This is the time when people with diverse identities began to develop the identity of being “Indian”. The ‘civilisational’ entity called India began to be transformed into a political entity called the Indian nation during the freedom struggle.

Structural Dimension 

The structural aspect of the balance between national unity and regional and sectional aspirations are seen in some of the following features:

(i) The core of the structural aspect of national consolidation was the creation of a democratic system of governance with universal adult franchise. Democracy and national integration were compatible. The participation of diverse groups in the process of governance was possible only through the representative democratic system.

(ii) The constitution also provided a federal structure with a strong central government, thus balancing the needs of the regions with that of the nation as a whole. The participation of local bodies was further strengthened through the Panchayat Raj amendments in the 1990s. (73rd and 74th Amendments)

(iii) Language is an important part of cultural identity. The Indian constitution grants recognition to various regional languages as official languages. The reorganisation of states in India was also done on the basis of language

(iv) At the administrative level, there exists the All India Administrative cadre (IAS, IPS, IFS, IRS, etc.) This provides for a unified central bureaucratic system. At the same time there is also the State cadre that provides for the state bureaucracy.

(v) The National Integration Council was founded in 1961 to find ways and means to combat the evils of communalism, casteism, regionalism, linguism and narrow-mindedness, and to formulate definite conclusions in order to give a lead to the country. This Conference decided to set up a National Integration Council (NIC) to review all matters pertaining to national integration and to make recommendations thereon. 

(vi) The Indian Constitution has specified certain Fundamental Duties for Indian citizens.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 4 Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration

  • Chapter 4 - Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration Exercises
  • HSC Political Science Maharashtra State Board 2022 chapter 4 Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National
  • Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solution Chapter 4 – Contemporary India : Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration.
  • Chapter 4 Contemporary India Challenges to Peace Stability and National Integration std 12th
  • political science class 12 chapter 4 question answers
  • 12th political science digest pdf
  • chapter 4 political science class 12 notes
  • political science reliable pdf
  • political science class 12 chapter 4 question answers
  • contemporary india: good governance
  • 12th political science digest pdf in marathi
  • hsc political science important questions

Maharashtra State Board 12th Std Political Science Textbook Solutions Digest

Post a Comment

Thanks for Comment

Previous Post Next Post