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Chapter 10 - Cold War Question Answer | Cold War History 12th

Chapter 10 - Cold War Question Answer | Cold War History 12th

Chapter 10 - Cold War Question Answer | Cold War History 12th

1. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question - 1. The headquarters of SEATO were located at ___________

[a] Thailand
[b] the Philippines
[c] Pakistan
[d] the United Kingdom
Solutions :
[a] Thailand
 

Question - 2. A fund named ‘Africa Fund’ was raised at ___________ for providing necessary aid to neighbouring nations of South Africa.

[a] Jakarta
[b] Harare
[c] Namibia
[d] Indonesia
Solutions :
[b] Harare


2A. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question - 1. On 30th June 1977, this organisation ceased to exist –

Solutions :
SEATO

Question - 2. The idea of Commonwealth games was introduced by –

Solutions :
Reverend Astley Cooper


2B. Choose the correct reason from those given below and complete the sentence.

Question - 1. No country was included in the ANZUS treaty except Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America ___________

[a] they did not want to let the United Kingdom and France have an upper hand
[b] it was a military pact
[c] it was a secret pact
[d] it was a pact only among countries with friendly relations
Solutions :
[a] they did not want to lot the United Kingdom and France to have an upper hand


3. Complete the concept map.



4. Write short notes.

Question - 1. Cold War.

Solutions :
  1. Definition: The tussle between Capitalist nations and Communist nations for power and ideological influence, which began after the Second World War is referred to as the ‘Cold War.
  2. Walter Lippmann, an American political columnist was the first to use the term ‘Cold War’.
  3. ‘Cold War’ is characterized by the following factors –
  4. No Direct War.
  5. The intense race for armament.
  6. Aggressive Political Policies.
  7. Mutual lack of Faith among Nations.
  8. Political and Economic Pressurisation.
  9. Ideological Conflict.
  10. The aftermath of the Second World War created conditions leading to the Cold War.
  11. England and France lost their primary positions in world politics.
  12. During the world war, Russia gained prominence in Eastern Europe while America, England, and France gained prominence in Western Europe.
  13. The Eastern European nations under the influence of Soviet Russia adopted communist ideology while the Western European nations under the influence of America adopted capitalist ideology and democratic system. This situation caused the emergence of the ‘Cold War.

Question - 2. Non- Alignment Movement.

Solutions :
  1. After the Second World War, India decided not to join either Russia or America. India adopted the policy of development by its own efforts and shape its own strategies leading towards peace. This policy is known as the ‘NAM-Non Alignment Policy’.
  2. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Sukarno [Indonesia], Nkrumah [Ghana], Gamal Abdel Nasser [Egypt], and Marshal Tito [Yugoslavia] were the architects of the concept ‘NAM’.
  3. The nations, which adopt an independent foreign policy based on the concept of peaceful co-existence, support other nations in their independence struggle, and do not involve themselves in the military agreements or bilateral treaties with the superpowers is known as ‘Non-Aligned Nations’.
  4. Non-Alignment is a concept concerned more with progress and peace than war and poverty, so it is positive.

5. Explain the following statements with reasons.

Question - 1. CENTO became non-operational.

Solutions :
  1. CENTO stands for Central Treaty Organisation.
  2. CENTO earlier known as the ‘Baghdad Pact’ or Middle East Treaty Organisation [METO] is a treaty among four nations namely, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, and England.
  3. This treaty was signed on 24th February 1955. Iraq joined later.
  4. America started providing the member nations of CENTO economic and military aid.
  5. America feared that if Soviet Russia attacked any of the member nations, then all member nations should fight it collectively.
  6. But in reality, none of the member nations had the military capacity to fight.
  7. Except for the United Kingdom, the rest of the three were in need of military and technological aid but America was too involved to pay attention to their need.
  8. Hence, the other members of CENTO were not satisfied. They wanted to withdraw from the treaty and act independently.
  9. Iran and Pakistan withdrew from the treaty and hence CENTO became non-operational.

Question - 2. SAARC has achieved success in some fields.

Solutions :
  1. SAARC has achieved success in some fields for e.g. a centre for the dissemination of agro-related information was started in Bangladesh and it has also been used as a platform for research related to seeds, animal husbandry, and fisheries.
  2. A SAARC center for meteorological research was established in Dhaka.
  3. In Kathmandu, an orthopedic center was established.
  4. Efforts are being made to promote tourism in SAARC countries.
  5. SAARC is also working to eliminate poverty in South Asia with the help of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific [ESCAP].
  6. An inter-Governmental group was established to formulate an agreement [SAFTA- South Asia Free Trade Area] for promoting free trade and economic cooperation among SAARC nations.
  7. The SAARC Documentation Centre was established in Delhi for the dissemination of information.
  8. SAARC Human Resources Development Centre was established in Islamabad [Pakistan].
  9. Agreements were signed to counter the smuggling of narcotic drugs. Committees were appointed for development in the fields of postal services and transportation.
 

6. State your opinion.

Question - 1. The Cold War began between America and Soviet Russia.

Solutions :
  • The tussle between the Capitalist nations and Communist nations for power and ideological influence which began after the second world war is referred to as the ‘Cold War.
  • During the world war, Russia gained prominence in Eastern Europe while America, France, and England gained prominence in Western Europe.
  • The Eastern European nations under the influence of Soviet Russia adopted Communist ideology.
  • The Western European nations under the influence of America adopted a Capitalist ideology and democratic system.
  • This situation caused the emergence of the ‘Cold War’ between Soviet Russia and America.

Question - 2. India has always opposed colonialism.

Solutions :
  • India is acknowledged as a great democracy in the world.
  • After independence, India adopted the policy of active non-alignment in international politics.
  • India would always strive to establish global peace.
  • India would not tolerate foreign intervention in her internal matters. India shall respect the regional unity and sovereignty of other countries.
  • India emphasizes the principle of ‘live and let live’ supported by peaceful co-existence.
  • For e.g. in the post-independence period in 1949, a conference was held in Delhi in which support was declared to the issue of Indonesia’s independence. It was demanded that the Dutch should leave Indonesia before 1950 and grant its independence.
  • The position India took in the case of Africa, is also very important. India took a strong initiative in demanding independence of African countries especially the protectorates of European nations.
  • India insisted that the foreign rulers [colonialist European countries] should leave the colonies.
  • India cared about Africa because of its long-standing relations with African countries.
  • Mahatma Gandhi showed Africa the path to satyagraha for independence.
  • Thus, India had been at the forefront of the struggle against colonialism.

Try to do this [Textbook Page No. 77]

Collect information about the ‘United Nations’ with the help of the internet. Create groups of students in the class and let them compile the information of various specialized agencies of the United Nations.

Solutions :
The United Nations was established after World War II with the aim of preventing any war in the future and establishing peace in the world. UN is the largest and most powerful intergovernmental organisation in the world. It was established on 24th October 1945. Currently, 193 countries in the world are members of the UN. The headquarter of the UN is located in New York, USA. Since its establishment UN has been working for maintaining world peace and avoiding conflict among nations, it also works for remoting sustainable development, protection and preservation of the environment, and protecting human rights.

The important agencies of the UN are as follows:
[i] International Labour Organisation [ILO]:
Established in – 1919 to improve the conditions and living standards of workers.
Headquarters – Geneva.

[ii] International Monetary Fund [IMF]:
Established in – 1945 to promote international monetary cooperation.

[iii] Food and Agricultural Organisation:
Established in – 1945

[iv] United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]:
Established in – 1945.

[v] World Health Organisation:
Established in – 1948

[vi] International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA]:
Established in – 1957

[vii] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]:
Established in – 1965

[viii] World Trade Organisation [WTO]:
Established in – 1995

[ix] UN Women:
Established in – 2010

[x] United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC]:
Established in – 1997

[xi] United Nation Environmental Programme [UNEP]:
Established in – 1972

[xii] International Development Association [IDA]:
Established in – 1960

[xiii] United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund [UNICEF]:
Established in – 1946

[xiv] International Telecommunication Union [ITU]:
Established in – 1865


Try to do this [Textbook Page No. 83]

Review the proceedings of NAM conferences held during the period from 1992 to the Venezuela conference of 2016.

Solutions :
NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, SR Serbia, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Non-Aligned Movement [NAM] is an organization of Redeveloping nations that are not formally aligned, with any major power flex. Here is the list of NAM summits:
  • 10th NAM Summit: 1-6 September 1992 – Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • 11th NAM Summit: 18-20 October 1995 – Cartagena, Colombia.
  • 12th NAM Summit: 2-3 September 1998, Durban, South Africa.
  • 13th NAM Summit: 20-25 Feb 2003, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • 14th NAM Summit: 15-16 September 2006, Havana, Cuba.
  • 15th NAM Summit: 11-16 July 2009, Sharm-El-Sheikh, Egypt.
  • 16th NAM Summit: 26-31 August 2012, Tehran, Iran.
  • 17th NAM Summit: 13-18 September 2016, Porlamar, Venezuela.

1. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Try to do this [Textbook Page No. 85]

Collect information about SAARC conferences till 2014, with the help of the internet.

Solutions :
SAARC also known as The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is the regional intergovernmental organisation in South Asia. Total 8 countries are members of SAARC.
Nepal
Bhutan
India
the Maldives
Sri Lanka
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Afghanistan.
 

The First Summit was held in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 7-8 December 1985, signed the SAARC charter on 8 December 1985 thereby establishing the regional association and study groups on the problems of terrorism, drug trafficking, etc.
  • Second Summit India: Date – 17-18 November 1986 in Bangalore.
  • Appointment of Ambassador Abdul Ahsan of Bangladesh as the first Secretary-General of South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation.
  • 3rd Summit: 2-4 November 1987 in Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • 4th Summit: 29-31 December 1988 in Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • 5th Summit: 21-23 November 1990 in Male, Maldives.
  • 6th Summit: 21 December 1991 in Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • 7th Summit: 10-11 April 1992, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • 8th Summit: 2-4 May 1995, New Delhi, India
  • 9th Summit: 12-14 May 1997, Male, Maldives.
  • 10th Summit: 29-31 July 1998, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • 11th Summit: 4-6 January 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • 12th Summit: 4-6 January 2004, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • 13th Summit: 12-13 November 2005, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 14th Summit: 3-4 April 2007, New Delhi, India
  • 15th Summit: 1-3 August 2008, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • 16th Summit: 28-29 April 2010, Thimphu, Bhutan
  • 17th Summit: 10-11 November 2011, Addu City, Maldives.
  • 18th Summit: 26-27 November 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal.

1. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Project [Textbook Page No. 87]

Collect information about the ‘Commonwealth Games’ with the help of the internet.

Solutions :
The Commonwealth Games is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946, has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. 

Athletes with a disability are also included as full members of their national teams, making the Commonwealth Games the first fully inclusive international multi-sport event. It is also the world’s first multi-sport event that inducts an equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented recently in the 2018 Commonwealth Games. With such unique features, the World Economic Forum called the event inspiring and significant.


Their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which was held in London, England in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton, Canada in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the movement of the game has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability, and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18. 

The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 respectively, with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 respectively and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were canceled because of the Second World War.

Chapter 10 - Cold War Question Answer | Cold War History 12th


We are going to study the concept of ‘Cold War’ in this lesson.

10.1 Cold War : Definition The tussle between Capitalist nations and Communist nations for power and ideological influence, which began after the Second World War is referred to as ‘Cold War’. Walter Lippmann, an American political columnist was the first to use the term ‘Cold War’. The concept of ‘Cold War’ is characterised by the following factors:

Background of Cold War : The aftermath of Second World War created conditions leading to the onset of Cold War. England and France lost their primary positions in the world politics. During the world war Russia gained prominence in Eastern Europe, while America, England and France gained prominence in Western

Europe. Thus, Europe was divided in Eastern and Western Europe. The Eastern European nations under the influence of Soviet Russia adopted communist ideology. The Western European nations under the influence of America adopted capitalist ideology and democratic system. This situation caused the emergence of ‘Cold War’.

Progression of ‘Cold War’ : After the Second World War was over, America had a ‘Marshall Plan’ for post-war reconstruction of Europe. Under this plan America started providing financial help to these nations. Soviet Russia started encouraging the freedom movements in Asia and Africa. Because of the division of Europe into Eastern Europe and Western Europe a political tension was created between America and Soviet Russia. Although, a direct war between them never took place, the sense of the looming Third World War prevailed at global level. However, both parties have been mutually avoiding any

possibilities of such world war. Now the situation was such that both, America and Russia, perennially appeared to be ready for a war, tension prevailed on both sides but actual war did not happen. This situation, by-and-large, is referred to as ‘Cold War’. Europe was divided after the Second World War on the basis of political, economic and military concerns. However, the division of Europe leading to the Cold War was mainly based on the ideological differences. Ideology is fundamental to the national goals and aspirations. The communist ideology of Soviet Russia was based on the principle of governmental ownership and the capitalist ideology of America was based on the principle of private ownership. 

The Cold War did not remain restricted only to Europe, but it spread to Asian continent as well. Two major events took place in the first half of the twentieth century. They were, the ‘Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship’ and the ‘Korean Conflict’. The Cold War began during the times of Russian Premier Stalin. He was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who understood the destructive nature of nuclear war, brought changes in the past Soviet policies and adopted policies based on more realistic outlook. He looked forward to create a peaceful coexistence between Russia and America. His policies could make the meeting possible between him and American President, Eisenhower

In 1959, the President of America, Mr. Eisenhower and the Soviet Russian leader Mr. Nikita Khrushchev met at Camp David in America. In 1961, Soviet Russia built the ‘Berlin Wall’. This prevented the contact between West Berlin and East Berlin. This instance resulted in increased tension in Europe. In 1962, Cuba became the centre of the tension created by the Cold War because of the deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba by Soviet Russia. This incidence is known as ‘The Cuban Missile Crisis’. To reduce this tension between the two countries measures like bilateral agreement, establishing a Moscow-Washington hotline for instant communication were taken. In 1972, the American President Richard Nixon and the Premier of Soviet Russia, Leonid Brezhnev met at Moscow. 

In the America-Soviet Russia summit held in that year at Moscow, it was unanimously agreed upon to put a limitation on the number of nuclear missiles. This agreement reduced the tension between the two countries to some extent. In the same year America officially acknowledged People’s Republic of China as a State. The process of relaxing the political tensions is referred as ‘détente’. Later, the American President visited China and officially recognised the communist government of China. 

Both of them used ‘Veto’ in ‘Security Council’ of the United Nations, on various instances like supporting friend nations, signing of various military treaties, economic exchanges, trading concessions, granting the status of ‘friend nation’. This indirectly promoted division of the member nations in distinct groups. This resulted in highlighting the ideological differences between Capitalism and Communism, thus creating mutual fear and disbelief. There was lack of any effective system that would clear political misunderstandings. Ultimately the Cold War remained alive for sometime.

The Decade of ‘Détente’: America and Russia decided to continue the process of détente. The Paris Conference in 1973 was an attempt of ending the Vietnam War. The peace talks were furthered in 1975 Helsinki Conference. This conference was attended by representatives of 35 European countries along with the President of America and the Premier of Soviet Russia. 

This conference was organized to lessen the strain between eastern and western European countries. A conference was held at Camp David in 1978 to resolve the strife between Israel and Arabs. In 1979, there was a revolution in Iran. The last Monarch (Shah) of Iran was overthrown and Ayatollah Khomeini became the supreme leader of the country. Iran suspended all diplomatic relations with USA and also withdrew from ‘CENTO’.

In the same year, Russia intervened in Afghanistan and established a socialist government under the leadership of Babrak Karmal. There was an intense competition for developing nuclear weapons and space programmes between America and Soviet Russia. The field of sports was also subjected to the Cold War politics. America and Soviet Russia were aware that their policies could inevitably lead to the Third World War. However, both wanted to avoid it. Treaties limiting the number of nuclear weapons were signed by both the countries and the possibility of Third World 

Mikhail Gorbachev’s Era : Mikhail Gorbachev became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Soviet Russia and the Premier of Soviet Russia in 1985. His period saw the end of Cold War. He introduced important reforms in Soviet Russia through his policies known as ‘Perestroika’ (Restructuring) and ‘Glasnost’ (Openness). During his times the Russian economy had grown weaker. Gorbachev tried to normalise it by restructuring the political and economic systems of Soviet Russia. 

He attempted to democratise the political system by way of open elections and to end the authoritarian rule of the communist party. He decentralized the economic machinery of the state. Authors, journalists and intellectuals were given more freedom of expression. However, Gorbachev, who gave momentum to the process of unification of the East and West Germany could not stop the disintegration of his own country. Soviet Russia disintegrated during his period. After 1991, two new terms were coined in the global history; ‘Post Cold War World’ and Post Soviet Russia world order’. 

Aftermath of the ‘Cold War’: During the period of Cold War there were many factors, which threatened the very future of mankind. They included political misunderstandings among nations, world’s nations splitting into two distinct groups, priorities to secret political moves and treaties, obsence of priority to the process of disarmament, use of science for producing destructive weapons, neglect of basic and important issues like food, clothing and housing, etc. Both, USA and Soviet Russia had to pay very heavily for their strategy of letting the situation of Cold War prevail over prolonged period. The consequence of dissolution of Soviet Russia left USA as the only superpower in the world. Now, we shall review the treaties and agreements signed by America and Soviet Russia during the period of Cold War

10.2 NATO, ANZUS, SEATO, CENTO, Warsaw Pact NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation - 1949) : NATO was an alliance created to protect 29 of the European countries from the expansionist policy of Soviet Russia. Its members included Norway, France, Italy, Denmark, Great Britain, America, Netherlands, Portugal, Turkey, West Germany, Greece, Belgium, Canada, Iceland, Luxemburg and Spain. Few of the important terms included in the NATO alliance are as follows: 

An attack on any of the member countries of the alliance would be treated as the attack on all member countries; all of the member countries will try to maintain peace and security; any of the mutual issues among the member countries shall be resolved through discussions. The headquarters of NATO are in Paris. America had a significant influence in the decision making process of NATO. To counter America’s influential position in NATO, Soviet Russia brought together the communist countries in Europe and signed a treaty commonly known as ‘Warsaw Pact’.


ANZUS Treaty : Australia (A), New Zealand (NZ) and United States of America (US) signed a treaty on 1st September 1951. This treaty signed by the three nations for their collective security is commonly known as ANZUS treaty. These nations are in the Pacific Ocean region. Hence, this treaty is also described as a ‘three-way defence pact’ in the Pacific region. This was the first instance of its kind; two nations in the British Commonwealth were independently making a pact with America. In a way, it indicated that these countries did not want England and France to have any upper hand in the matters of their national security. This treaty had one more objective to protect the countries in Pacific Ocean from communist China.


SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation) : England, America, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand and Philippines came together and signed a treaty on 8th September 1954 at Manila (Philippines), to ensure the collective defence of the countries in Southeast Asia. This treaty is also known as ‘Southeast Asia Collective Defence Treaty’ or ‘Manila Pact’. The pact was mainly intended to stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. It was decided that if any of the nations included in the pact was attacked, then other nations signing the pact would collectively stand up against it and in the times of peace they would extend help for the social and economic development of each other. 

However, there were a number of flaws in the treaty. Although, it was named as a treaty of southeast Asian countries, only three countries from Asia, namely, Thailand, Philippines and Pakistan, were included in it. Rest all were western nations, who neither geographically, nor historically had any affiliation with the three Asian countries. They were geographically distanced from Asia by thousands of kilometers.

 They did not have any deep understanding of the problems of the Asian countries. Therefore, the military viability of this treaty was very limited. The headquarters of SEATO was located in Thailand. However, the organisation did not have its own military. In 1973, Pakistan withdrew from it. In 1975, France stopped providing monetory help to this organisation. On 30th June 1977, this organisation was officially dissolved.

CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) : CENTO, was known earlier as ‘Baghdad Pact’ or ‘Middle East Treaty Organisation’ (METO), is a treaty among four nations, namely, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran and England. This treaty was signed on 24th February 1955. Iraq joined later. In 1958, in a military coup, the monarchy of Iraq was removed from power and the Iraqi Republic was established. Iraqi revolutionists overthrew the government that favoured the western countries. The new regime opposed Baghdad Pact and Iraq withdrew from it in 1959. With this, the name of the pact was changed to CENTO and its headquarters were moved to Ankara (Turkey).

America encouraged them to continue the treaty with an intention to put a check on the spread of communism by Soviet Russia. America started providing the member nations of CENTO economic and military aid. It was afraid that if Soviet Russia attacked any of the member nations, then all members should fight it collectively. However, if such situation emerged in reality, none of the member countries had military capacity to fight. 

Excepting United Kingdom, rest of the three were in need of economic and technological aid but America was too involved in many other matters, to pay attention to their needs. Hence, the member nations of CENTO were not very satisfied. They wanted to withdraw from the treaty and act independently. Iran and Pakistan withdrew from this treaty and the CENTO became non-operational. 

Sino - Soviet Security Pact : Earlier, Soviet Russia had signed a defence treaty with China in 1950. Now, with this new pact Soviet Russia agreed to provide economic, industrial, technological aid to China

Warsaw Pact : To oppose American policies and to strengthen communist nations, Soviet Russia brought together seven communist countries in eastern and central Europe known as ‘Eastern Bloc’ and signed a treaty commonly known as Warsaw Pact. Along with Soviet Russia, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania signed this treaty. Albania withdrew from it in 1968

10.3 Non-Alignment Policy of India and NAM After the Second World War, without joining either Soviet Russia’s allied group or America’s allied group, India adopted the policy of development by its own efforts and to shape its own strategies leading towards peace. This policy is known as ‘NAM – Non-Aligned Movement’. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr Sukarno (Indonesia), Nkrumah (Ghana), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) and Marshal Tito (Yugoslavia) were the architects of the concept of NAM.

Non-Aligned Nations : The nations, which adopts an independent foreign policy based on the concept of peaceful coexistence, supports other nations in their independence struggle and does not involve themselves in the military agreements or bilateral treaties with the superpowers is known as ‘NonAligned Nations’. Non-Alignment is a concept concerned more with progress and peace than war and poverty, so it is more positive. In 1961, a conference of non-aligned nations was called at Belgrade. 

Belgrade Conference was the first summit of the Non-Aligned Movement. Representatives of 25 countries were present for this conference. It was concluded with a declaration containing 27 columns. It consisted of several demands such as : stop aggression in Asia, Africa and South America, make Algeria and Angola free, Withdraw French army from Tunisia, Stop intervention in Congo, Policy of racism in South Africa stop, give natural rights to Arabs in Palestine.

The next conference of non-aligned countries was held in October 1964, at Cairo (Egypt). Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri attended this conference. The thrust of the conference was on preparing global awareness against forming groups of nations based on military concerns and establishment of military bases in foreign countries. The third conference of the non-aligned nations was held in September 1970, at Lusaka (Zambia). In this conference it was decided that nonalignment countries strengthen their unity; continue the policy of opposing military treaties, insist on equal status in international relations and attempt to enhance disarmament. Besides, it was also resolved to end colonialism and racism; to put more emphasis on mutual co-operation and to support the ‘United Nations’. 

The fourth Conference of the non-aligned nations was held in 1973, at Algiers (Algeria). This conference, put up some demands, such as, developing a new economic system and establishing a system of reporting international news. The fifth conference of the non-aligned nations was held in 1976, at Colombo (Sri Lanka). It was decided in this conference to try to create a new global economy by lessening the influence of the super powers in the field. The next conferences were held in 1979, at Havana (Cuba) and in 1983, at New Delhi. The Palestinian cause and the support for the independence struggle of Southwestern Africa (now Namibia) was supported unanimously in the conference at New Delhi. The conference of non-aligned nations held at New Delhi was the 7th one. 

India’s Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi in her speech in this conference emphasised on ‘Freedom, Development, Disarmament and Peace’. The main goal of the non-aligned movement was, progress in the development of member nations. In the conference held in 1986, at Harare (Zimbabwe) a fund named ‘Africa Fund’ was raised for providing necessary aid to neighbouring nations of South Africa. The issues of Namibia’s (Southwest Africa) freedom and the racialism of South Africa were discussed. In the conference held in 1992, at Jakarta (Indonesia), a demand for more facilities in the field of commerce and trade; as also a demand for the restructuring of the United Nations were put up.

10.4 India’s Anti-Colonial Policy India is acknowledged as a great democracy in the world. It had protested against imperialism in the world politics even during pre-independence days. Soon 

after independence India adopted the policy of active non-alignment in the international politics. It does not mean that India would distance itself from the vital international issues but it would always strive to establish global peace. India would not tolerate foreign intervention in its internal matters. India shall respect the regional unity and sovereignty of other countries. India emphasises on the principle of ‘live and let live’ supported by peaceful co-existence. 

The following examples are worth citing in this regard. In the post-independence period, in 1949, a conference was held in Delhi in which support was declared to the issue of Indonesia’s independence. It was demanded that the Dutch should leave Indonesia before 1950 and grant its independence. The position India took in the case of Africa is also very important. India took a very strong initiative in demanding the independence of the African countries, especially the protectorates of European nations. India insisted that the foreign rulers (colonialist European countries) should leave the colonies, at the earliest.

 India also insisted that various institutions associated with the United Nations should expand their work fields and facilitate Africa to benefit by it. India spoke in the United Nations about the atrocious treatment meted out to the native Africans. India cared about Africa because of its longstanding relations with African countries. Thousands of Indians had migrated to Africa for trade and to work on the sugarcane plantations, since long ago. In 1896, Indian workers had gone there to work on the Kenya-Uganda railway project. Mahatma Gandhi showed Africa the path of satyagraha for getting independence. Thus, India had been on the forefront in the struggle against colonialism.

10.5 South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) Zia-ur Rehman, President of Bangladesh felt that an organisation, which would work for the economic and social development in Asia needs to be established. Accordingly, the first among the four meetings of foreign secretaries of Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal was convened in 1981, at Colombo. In this meeting it was decided to work together for planning of regional co-operation, rural development, health, demographic issues, trade, etc. In 1983, the foreign ministers of the above mentioned countries published the ‘SARC Declaration’ in Delhi. In 1985, SAARC was established at the summit meeting held at Dhaka. The following are the objectives of SAARC, as declared in the Dhaka conference. 
(1) To co-operate for the rapid, allround development of member nations. 
(2) To oppose terrorism and smuggling of narcotics. 
(3) To resolve problematic issues and create mutual understanding for mutual trust among nations. 
(4) To co-operate with various organisations at regional, zonal and international levels, working with similar objectives. 
(5) To work on international level for collective well being. SAARC was officially established in Dhaka, with these objectives in view. Its secretariat-general was established at Kathmandu. It was decided that members should meet once annually. Annual subscription was made mandatory for raising the salary fund of General Secretary, seven Directors and the staff. The duration of SAARC’s Principal Secretary’s posting

was to be for three years and every nation was to get to post their representative as Principal Secretary, every year by rotation. The leaders of the South Asian countries reaffirmed their commitment to the UN Charter and the principles governing sovereign equality of States, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in internal affairs and non-use or threat of use of force against the territorial integrity and political independence of other States. 

They reiterated that the United Nations constituted the most important forum for the resolution of all issues affecting international peace and security. They also reaffirmed their deep conviction in the continuing validity and relevance of the objectives of the Non Aligned Movement as an important force in international relations.

Challenges for SAARC to tackle : SAARC is laden with many difficult issues to tackle such as economic disparity among the member nations, expenditure allotment for defence, inadequate infrastructure, underdevelopment of agricultural sector, rising terrorism, population explosion, insufficient trade, divergent political systems, religious-lingual diversity, etc. 

Success of SAARC : SAARC has done well in some of the fields mentioned above. For example, a centre for dissemination of agro related information was started in Bangladesh and it has been also used as a platform for research related to seeds, animal husbandry and fisheries. A ‘SAARC’ centre for meteorological research was established in Dhaka. In Kathmandu an orthopedic centre was established. Efforts are being made to promote tourism in SAARC countries. SAARC is also working for eliminating poverty in the countries in South Asia with the help of the ‘Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP)’. 

An inter-Governmental group was established to formulate an agreement (SAFTA – South Asian Free Trade Area) for promoting free trade and economic cooperation among the SAARC nation. The SAARC Documentation Centre was established at Delhi for dissemination of information. SAARC Human Resources Development Centre was established at Islamabad (Pakistan). Agreements were signed to counter the smuggling of narcotic drugs. Committees were appointed for development in the fields of postal services and transportation.

South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement - SAPTA and South Asian Free Trade Area - SAFTA With a view to enhance mutual trade among Asian countries two treaties were signed, namely, SAPTA (1993) and SAFTA (2004).

10.6 Commonwealth A voluntary international organisation of the countries which were once part of the British Empire and now are sovereign states is known as ‘British Commonwealth’ or simply ‘Commonwealth of Nations’. The idea behind establishing Commonwealth was to being the Governors and administrators together who had worked in the erstwhile colonies of the British empire. The objective was to achieve coherence in the political and administrative machinery by exchange of the experience and ideas of these officers. In 1917, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand were given autonomy as integral states of British 

Empire. In 1931, England declared a policy of granting autonomy to all its colonies, one by one. The British Parliament passed a statute known as ‘Statute of Westminster’. This statute approved formation of Commonwealth. As the tradition would have it, the British Queen or King is installed at the head of this organisation. The secretariat of the Commonwealth was established at London. Voluntary cooperation is the fundamental principle of Commonwealth. After the Second World War the British colonies in Asia and Africa became independent. The commonwealth deserves credit for it to some extent. 

The opposition to British rule in the colonies and the altered international scenario made the disintegration of the British Empire inevitable. The establishment of Commonwealth proved instrumental in giving momentum to anti colonial movements in the colonies. Beside this the ‘Commonwealth’ held to check the resentment with regard to granting freedom to the colonies that prevailed in some social strata in England. India’s decision to remain in the Commonwealth even after its independence added to the nullification of that resentment.

Commonwealth and India : In 1948, in the Congress Session at Jaipur in Rajasthan, Pandit Nehru took the decision of joining ‘Commonwealth’. India became a member of Commonwealth as an equal and sovereign state. The factors leading to this decision were in the situation that prevailed then. At that time England was the major supplier of arms and other defense material to India. England had granted same facilities to India with regards to foreign exchange. Indian exported goods were partially free from the customs duty.

 More importantly India had an open platform at Commonwealth to counter the malpropaganda by Pakistan against India. By considering all these things India became a member of Commonwealth. Apart from this India has always been on the forefront in Commonwealth Games. The sports competitions modeled after Olympics competitions used to be held for amateur sportsmen in the British colonies under the name, ‘British Empire Games’. The idea of such games was introduced by Reverend Astley Cooper. Since 1950, these competitions came to be called as ‘Commonwealth Games’. Commonwealth games were started at ‘Crystal palace’ to mark the coronation ceremony of King George V. 

The Commonwealth Games of 1986 were of special significance. Thirty two countries boycotted the games. These countries demanded that South Africa should change their racist policies. However, United Kingdom did not pay any heed to this demand. Hence, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, India’s Prime Minister declared a boycott. Now, in the 21st century India has recorded a laudable performance in the Commonwealth Games. In the two lessons that follow, we are going to learn about India as a country in the process of transformation.    

Chapter 10 - Cold War Question Answer | Cold War History 12th

Balbharati Solutions for History 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1: Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
Chapter 2: European Colonialism
Chapter 3: India and European Colonialism
Chapter 4: Colonialism and the Marathas
Chapter 5: India: Social and Religious Reforms
Chapter 6: Indian Struggle against Colonialism
Chapter 7: Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
Chapter 8: World Wars and India
Chapter 9: World : Decolonisation
Chapter 10: Cold War
Chapter 11: India Transformed - Part 1
Chapter 12: India Transformed - Part 2

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