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India Transformed Part 1 Question Answer | india transformed part 1

India Transformed Part 1 Question Answer | india transformed part 1

India Transformed Part 1 Question Answer | india transformed part 1

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question - 1. A legal agreement was signed in Geneva which is known as ____________

[a] SEATO
[b] NATO
[c] GATT
[d] SAARC
Solutions :
[c] GATT

Question - 2. An act similar to ‘Right to Information’ was first applied in ____________ in 1776.

[a] Sweden
[b] France
[c] England
[d] India
Solutions :
[a] Sweden

Question - 3. The birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda is observed as ____________

[a] National Education Day
[b] National Youth Day
[c] National Integration Day
[d] National Science Day
Solutions :
[b] National Youth Day

2A. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question - 1. In 2004, this became the biggest firm in Asia providing software services –

Solutions :
Tata Consultancy Services

Question - 2. In 2002, the Metro railway was flagged off –

Solutions :
The Delhi Metro Railway


2B. Choose the correct reason from those given below and complete the sentence.

Question - 1. India became member of World Trade Organisation, because ____________

[a] India want to compete with other nations
[b] India cannot stay aloof from the global economy
[c] India adopted the policy of liberalisation
[d] India wanted to be in the leading position at the global level
Solutions :
[c] India adopted the policy of liberalisation


3. Complete the following concept map.

Question - 1.
  Q3
Solutions :
  Q3.1

4. Write short notes.

Question - 1. The Youth Policy of Government of India.

Solutions :
  1. India is a country with a maximum proportion of young people. Individuals in the age group of 15-29 are considered as ‘youth’.
  2. Youth, if provided with opportunities, for education and skill training, can contribute significantly to the development of India.
  3. A number of centers of‘Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan’ were established in 1972 for the training of young people in various skills.
  4. The programmes run by these centers were eventually merged in the ‘National Youth Empowerment Programme’. This programme put a thrust on topics like literacy, education, health and hygiene, family welfare, preservation and conservation of the environment, awareness of social issues, rural development, and self-employment.
  5. 12th January the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekanand is celebrated as ‘National Youth Day. National Youth Festival is also celebrated in the month of January. This festival is designed to provide a platform for the artistic talents of young individuals.
  6. ‘Youth Hostels Association of India’ has established youth hostels in various parts of the country which works for encouraging adventure skills among young people.
  7. Training programmes are arranged by this association through ‘Bharat Scout and Guides, National Service Scheme and National Cadet Corps’.

Question - 2. ‘Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana’.

Solutions :
  1. The Government of India knows the importance of having roads in good condition in the interior areas started ‘Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana’ in 2000.
  2. Initially, the work of building roads began by linking the villages of population strength up to 1000. In 2001 this programme was merged in ‘Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojana’.
  3. The roads measuring about 75000 km. were completed till 2005. The purpose of this work was to extend the benefits of the country’s economic growth to people living in rural areas and to bring transformation in their lives.
  4. It aimed at providing amenities for good health, education, drinking water, dwellings, roads, and electricity.

5. State your opinion.

Question - 1. India is a leading country in the field of space research.

Solutions :
  1. In 2007, India entered a new field of space research. It commercially launched the Italian satellite.
  2. Other countries had submitted tenders quoting very high rates, to get this contract. However, India got this contract by quoting reasonable rates.
  3. Before entering this field on a commercial basis, India had already successfully launched the satellite of Argentina, Belgium, South Korea, Indonesia, and Germany.
  4. In 2008, India launched ‘Chandrayaan-1’, the first lunar probe. India could collect evidence for the presence of water on the moon through this satellite.
  5. After that India also launched ‘Chandrayaan-2’ and ‘Mangalyaan’.
  6. All these achievements proved that India is a leading country in the field of space research.

6. Answer the following Question -s in detail.

Question - 1. Which programmes were launched in India for making the opportunities of wage-earning?

Solutions :
  1. Creating employment opportunities for an ever-increasing population is a major challenge for the government. There are several programmes launched by the government of India for wage earners.
  2. These programs are as follows:

  3. Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana and ‘Rojgar Hami Yojana’: To create job opportunities for educated youth the ‘Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the Government of India started this plan on 2nd October 1993 on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  4. Rojgar Hami Yojana was to assure daily wages to the unemployed agricultural labourers. The objective of this plan was to provide wage-earning opportunity, who was in search. This programme was launched in 257 districts in India. A goal was to provide work to two young laborers in each family below the poverty line. In 2001, this plan was merged in ‘Gramin Rojgar Yojana’.
  5. In 1998, to provide support to farmers in difficult times “Kisan Credit Card” plan was started. It helps the farmer to avail funds for essential equipments and seeds for cultivation. Later, an insurance facility was also offered to farmers, who were Kisan Credit Card holders.
  6. Suvarnajayanti Gramin Svayam Rojgar Yojana: This plan was launched in 1999 by merging various plans together namely ‘Ekatmik Gramin Vikas Yojana’, Self-employment training programmes, ‘Ganga Kalyan Yojana’ etc.
  7. Jawahar Gram Samruddhi Yojana: In 1999, a new plan was implemented with the intention to provide adequate employment for unemployed men and women. It was merged in ‘Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana’ in 2001.
  8. Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana: This plan made provision for creating opportunities in rural areas of earning wages, to provide food grains in exchange for work, etc. This scheme was started in 150 economically backward districts in the country. In 2006, this scheme was merged in ‘Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana’.
  9. Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana: Under this scheme, each family in rural areas were given assurance of at least 100 days of work.

7. Answer the following Question - with the help of the given points.

Question - 1. Give information about the ‘Right to Information Act.

[a] Background of the act and the beginning of this movement in India.
[b] Definition of ‘Information’.
[c] The rights of citizens under this act.
Solutions :
[a] Background of the act and the beginning of this movement in India:

This kind of Act was first implemented in Sweden in 1776. In 1946, ‘United Nations’ declared the ‘Right to Information to be the fundamental human right.
In 1982, L.K. Kulwant, a resident of Jaipur in Rajasthan, a social activist initiated the process by applying to know the Jaipur Municipal Corporation’s work for cleaning the city.

The High Court gave a clear verdict stating that ‘Right to Information is a fundamental right of all citizens.
In 1990, Aruna Roy started the movement called ‘Majdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan’. A need for ‘Right to Information was started through this movement.
Harsh Mander, the Divisional Commissioner of Bilaspur showed courage to disclose official information while serving as a bureaucrat.
The struggle of Anna Hazare in 2001, had a decisive role in Maharashtra in this matter. The Act was implemented in Maharashtra on 12th October 2005.

[b] Definition of ‘Information’:
The definition of term ‘Information’ includes official records, documents, memoranda, emails, comments, consultations, press notes, circulars, orders, logbooks, tenders, reports, correspondence, formats, models, electronic data, the information of a private institution or an individual that is available in the records of any public establishment.

[c] The rights of citizens under this act:

Right to information grants access to official documents, records, permission to obtain their copies, to take notes, to extract passages, to get samples of authorised material and prints of data stored in CDs, Floppy discs, tapes, video cassettes, or in any other form, or stored on computers.
Citizens can get the desired information after submitting an application to the ‘Information officer’ of a ‘Public Authority.
Class 12 History Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 Intext Question -s and Answers

Collect information of following schemes: [Textbook Page No. 92]

National Pension Scheme, Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Vima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Vima Yojana, Atal Pension Yojana, Indian Post Payments Bank.

Solutions :
[A] National Pension Scheme:

The National Pension Scheme is a voluntary contribution of the pension system in India which is sponsored by the government of India.
This scheme was started by the Government of India in 2004 for all government employees.

The scheme was made open to all citizens in 2009. It is a voluntary and long-term retirement scheme. It is regulated by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority [PFRDA] and the central government.
Any employee from the public, private, and even the unorganized sectors can opt for this.

Personnel from the armed forces are not allowed. The scheme is open to all across industries and locations.

[B] Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Vima Yojana:


The scheme is available to people in the age group 18 to 70 years with a bank account who give their consent to join/enable auto-debit on or before 31st May for the coverage period 1st June to 31st May on an annual renewal basis.
Aadhar would be the primary KYC for the bank account. The risk coverage under the scheme is ₹ 2 lakh for accidental death and full disability and ₹ 1 lakh for partial disability.
The premium of 112 per annum is to be deducted from the account holder’s bank account through ‘auto-debit facility in one installment.

[C] Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Vima Yojana:


Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Vima Yojana is available to people between 18 and 50 years of age with a bank account.
This scheme was launched on 9th May 2015 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Kolkata.
It has an annual premium of ₹ 330. In case of death due to any cause, the payment to the nominee will be ₹ 2 lakh.
As of 31st March 2019, 5.92 crore people have already enrolled for this scheme.

[D] Atal Pension Yojana:

Atal Pension Yojana is a pension scheme under the Government of India.
This scheme replaces the Swavalamban Yojana and was established to provide old age income security to the workers belonging to the unorganized sector.
The Atal Pension Yojana was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 9th May 2015 in Kolkata.
The scheme focuses on encouraging workers of the unorganized sectors to save for their future [Age limit 18-40 years].

[E] Indian Postal Payments Bank :

The Indian Postal Payment Bank was launched on September 1, 2018, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi that aims at making banking services available at people’s doorstep.
This is a 100% Government-owned public sector bank, operating with the Department of Posts under the Ministry of Communications.
IPPB would be like any other bank but it will operate at a smaller scale without involving any credit risks and can’t issue advance loans or issue credit cards.


Let us know: [Textbook Page No. 92]

Collect information with the help of the internet about the ‘Rafi Ahmad Kidwai National Postal Academy [Gaziabad].
  Intext Q2
Solutions :

  1. Rafi Ahmad Kidwai National Postal Academy, recently called Postal Staff College India [PSCI] is the apex training institution of Indian postal services.
  2. It was set up in the year 1977. Initially, the college functioned from Sanchar Bhavan and later from Dak Bhavan in Delhi.
  3. It was shifted to its present location in Gaziabad in the year 1990. It is a central training institute and has the primary role of training and grooming the young officers who get recruited to the Indian Postal Service.
  4. It also conducts various in-service training programmes on postal management for Postal Service officers in India and other foreign postal administrations.
  5. Its goal is to make the officers of the department of posts professionally competent to handle the ever-changing communication market.
  6. Training Program:
  7. Advanced Development Program
  8. Executive Development Program
  9. Technology Management Program
  10. Postal Life Insurance
  11. Leadership Development for postmasters and mangers
  12. Quality Management

Let us collect information [Textbook Page No. 92]

Collect information about various services like ‘Sarvabhaum Suvarn Rokhe’ [Gold Bonds issued by the Government], ‘Electronic Indian Postal Order’, ‘E-Dakghar’, ‘E-Payment Portal’, ‘Mobile App’ etc. by interviewing the Postmaster of any branch.
Solutions :
[A] Sarvabhaum Suvarn Rokhe:

  1. This scheme was launched by Government in November 2015, under Gold Monetisation Scheme. The issues are made open for subscription in tranches by RBI in consultation with GOI.
  2. As per RBI instructions, every application must be accompanied by the PAN number issued by the income tax department to the investors as the PAN number of the first/ sole applicant is mandatory.
  3. SGBs are government securities denominated in grams of gold. They are substitutes for holding physical gold. Investors have to pay the issue price in cash and the bonds will be redeemed in cash on maturity. The bond is issued by Reserve Bank on behalf of the government of India.
  4. The SGB offers a superior alternative to holding gold in physical form. The quantity of gold for which the investor pays is protected since he receives the ongoing market price at the time of redemption /premature redemption.

[B] Electronic Indian Postal Order:

  1. The Department of Personnel and Training and Department of Posts have launched a service called e-IPO [Electronic Indian Postal Order] to enable the Indian citizens abroad to purchase an Indian Postal Order electronically by paying fee on-line through the e-post Office portal i.e., http://www.epostoffice.gov.in.
  2. It also facilitates them to file the Right to Information [RTI] application. Registration is mandatory to avail of this facility. Options for new account creation, user verification, search e-IPO, etc are available.

[C] e-Payment portal:

  1. e-Payment is a smart option for businesses and organizations to collect their bills or other payments through post office networks.
  2. When businesses require the collection of bills and other payments from customers across the country, Post offers them a simple and convenient solution in the form of e-payment.
  3. e-Payment is a many-to-one solution that allows the collection of money [telephone bills, electricity bills, examination fees, taxes, university fees, school fees, etc] on behalf of any organization. The collection is consolidated electronically using web-based software and payment is made centrally through cheque from a specified Post Office of billers choice.
  4. The information and MIS regarding the payment can be seen by the biller online. The MIS will contain the five fields of billers choice like name, telephone number, application number, etc. The services are currently available through more than 14,000 Post offices across the country.
  5. There is an agency in the market today with a large reach and establishing trust as the Post Office where the public can comfortably deposit all their bills in their neighbourhood

[D] e-Dak Ghar:
The e-Post Office of India post offers a variety of online Postal services to the users. One can avail services-philately [purchase of stamps], PLI/RPLI [payment of the premium], and IPO [purchase order for RTI].

[E] Mobile app:

The IPPB app is available on both Android and iOS platforms. This app, however, can only be used by those individuals who have an account in a core banking-enabled post office. KYC of the account should also be completed in advance.
Internet banking and mobile banking services should also be completed in advance.
Using the mobile app, account holders can also view account balances and statements, transfer funds, request a checkbook, stop payment on a cheque, use sweep-in-sweep-out facilities, and pay utility bills.
Project [Textbook Page No. 98]

Collect information about the States of India and Union Territories, as well as the names of their capital cities, with the help of the internet.
Solutions :
The states of India and its capitals are as follows:

StatesCapital
1. Andhra PradeshHyderabad
2. Arunachal PradeshItanagar
3. AssamDispur
4. BiharPatna
5. ChhattisgarhRaipur
6. GoaPanaji
7. GujratGandhinagar
8. HaryanaChandigarh
9. Himachal PradeshShimla
10. JharkhandRanchi
11. KarnatakaBengaluru
12. KeralaThiruvananthapuram
13. Madhya PradeshBhopal
14. MaharashtraMumbai
15. ManipurImphal
16. MeghalayaShillong
17. MizoramAizawl
18. NagalandKohima
19. OdishaBhubaneswar
20. PunjabChandigarh
21. RajasthanJaipur
22. SikkimGangtok
23. TelanganaHyderabad
24. Tamil NaduChennai
25. TripuraAgartala
26. Uttar PradeshLucknow
27. West BengalKolkata
28. UttarakhandDehradun

Union Territories and its Capitals:

Union TerritoriesCapitals
1. Anadaman and Nicobar IslandPort Blair
2. ChandigarhChandigarh
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuDaman
4. DelhiNew Delhi
5. LakshadweepKavaratti
6. PuducherryPondicherry
7. LadakhLeh (summer), Kargil (winter)
8. Jammu and KashmirSrinagar (summer) Jammu (winter)

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1


This lesson reviews the advancements in various fields, in India since 1990. We shall do this by citing a few representative examples.
11.1 Globalisation India before 1990 and India after 1990 are much apart. It adopted liberal economic policies in 1990 and many things changed.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) : During the times of Second World War many countries had adopted the policy of imposing various duties and taxes on imported goods, with a view to protect their home markets. It resulted in declining of trade. A meeting was called in Cuba to discuss this problem, which was attended by 56 nations. It was decided to establish a permanent organisation to resolve the problems related to international trade. 

A legal agreement was signed in Geneva by 23 nations on 30th October 1947, which is known as GATT. This agreement was the first multinational trade agreement. GATT gave priority to economic development through production and trade, to treat the member countries as ‘most favoured nations’

An annual meeting of the member countries of GATT used to be held at Geneva. It was attended by the representatives of the member countries. Each country was entitled to one vote. Problems faced by individual nations regarding the difficulties in international trade were discussed in the meeting and the decisions were based on these discussions. Later GATT became a part of a more encompassing organisation known as ‘World Trade Orgnisation’ - WTO.


World Trade Organisation (WTO) : On 1st January 1995, 123 nations together founded an organisation with the objective of opening the world for free trade. It was called World Trade Organisation (WTO). It’s a global trade organisation and India is a member of it. Arthur Dunkel, the Director General of WTO prepared a draft which has been fundamental to the establishment of the organisation. This draft is known as ‘Dunkel Draft’. 

The crux of this draft emphasises on trade, free from governmental customs duty and other restrictions. This approach is known as ‘liberalisation’. All participating countries agreed upon a set of rules and a premise common to all that would promote international trade. Initially provisions were made in the spheres of grants, exportsimports, foreign investments, reserved sectors, agriculture, technology and service sectors. After becoming a member of WTO, India put a thrust on economic progress. In


this aspect the contribution of the then Prime Minister of India, Narsimha Rao and Finance Minister Manmohan Singh is very important. Prime Ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh took ahead the policy of liberlisation. The report published by WTO in 2006 has made a special mention of increasing economic growth rate of India. Growth in investments, fall in the ratio of population below poverty line, fall in infant mortality rate, increasing availability of facilities for literacy, potable water and drainage system in India, are also mentioned in this report. By adopting ways like simplifying import rules, modifying laws regarding rights on intellectual property, modifying patent laws, India entered the global economy. 

11.2 Transformation in Various Fields Transformation of a nation can be discerned through certain indicators. Is the countryside developing? Are the roads in our vicinity in good condition? Has the traffic improved? Have the cities improved? Have the communication systems become more efficient? Has the defence machinery of the country given priority to upgradation and modernisation of defence systems? Are the citizen in position to avail of their rights in proper manner? If, answers to such questions are affirmative, then we can assert that the transformation is happening. So, let us understand the transformations in various fields that happened in our country.

11.2.1 Rural Development Plans Several plans for rural development have been implemented, so that the rural sector should not get neglected and the balance between rural and urban development be maintained. The plans that are being implemented in the present are mostly augmentation of plans that were already operational. Sometimes earlier plans were merged in new plans. To create employment opportunities for an ever increasing population is a major challenge for the government. We shall review the measures taken by the government in this respect.

Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana : To create job opportunities for educated youth the ‘Ministry of Commerce and Industry’ of the Government of India started a plan on 2nd October 1993. This plan was meant for creating opportunities for job and private enterprise. ‘Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana’ and ‘Rojgar Hami Yojana’ were started on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. Rojgar Hami Yojana was to assure daily wages to the unemployed agricultural labourers. There are days when employment of any kind is not available to agricultural labourers. 

The objective of this plan was to provide wage earning opportunity, who were in search of it. Initially this plan was launched in 257 districts in India. A goal was set to provide work to two young labourers in each family below poverty line. In 2001 this plan was merged in ‘Gramin (Rural) Rojgar Yojana’. In 1998, with a view to provide support to farmers in difficult times, ‘Kisan Credit Card’ plan was started. It was also intended to help farmer to avail funds for essential equipments and seeds for cultivation. Later, an insurance facility was also offered to farmers, who were Kisan Credit Card holders.

Suvarnajayanti Gramin Svayam Rojgar Yojana : This plan was launched in 1999. This plan was started by merging various plans together namely ‘Ekatmik Gramin Vikas Yojana’, Self employment training programmes for rural youth, programme for rural women and children, distribution of modern equipment to rural artisans, ‘Ganga Kalyan Yojana’ and plan to dig 10 lakh wells etc. In 2005-06, there were 12 lakh 7 thousand benefeciaries of ‘Suvarnajayanti Gramin Swayam Rojgar Yojana’. 

Jawahar Gram-Samruddhi Yojana : In 1999, a new plan was implemented with an intention to provide adequate employment for the unemployed men and women. In 2001, it was merged in a plan known as ‘Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana’.

Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana : This plan was launched by merging together ‘Rojgar Aashwasan Yojana’ and ‘Jawahar Gram-Samruddhi Yojana’. This plan made provisions for creating opportunities in rural areas of earning wages, to provide foodgrains in exchange of work, etc. In 2004, the scheme of giving food-grains in exchange of work was started in 150 districts in the country which were economically most backward. Measures like water conservation, development of agricultural lands were given priority to overcome situations of famine. In 2006, this scheme was merged in ‘Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana’. 

Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojna : The Government of India launched this scheme on national level to eradicate economic disparity, poverty, starvation and unemployment in rural India. Each family in rural areas was given assurance of at least 100 days’ work. Till 2008, this scheme was started in about 350 districts.

Agriculture and Livestock : Along with the nation’s transformation, agricultural sector is also getting transformed. According to 2011 census 54% of the total population in India is engaged in agriculture and agrorelated sector. The ‘Soil Health Card Scheme’ aims at increasing the soil fertility and agricultural production. ‘Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchan Yojana’ envisaged is for giving priority to adequate water supply

for agriculture and irrigation facilities on larger scale. ‘Krishi Vikas Yojana’ aims at organic cultivation and increase in the farmers’ income. ‘Pradhan Mantri Vima Yojana’ is implemented for the economic welfare of the farmer. More emphasis is given on fields like animal husbandry, dairy, fisheries, agricultural research and education. Focus on developing ‘Agriculture’, ‘Co-operative establishments’ and ‘Farmer Welfare’ are the three main themes of the development programmes. In 2007, a national policy for farmers was adopted. 

Gradually, the results of all the programmes implemented for the agricultural sector are becoming apparent. If there is a crop failure, because of things like natural calamities, pesticides, epidemics, adverse climate, etc. the farmer gets compensated through the insurance scheme (‘Pradhan Mantri Peek Vima Yojana’). Research institutes of agricultural science are supported through Indian Council for Agricultural Research (I. C. A. R.). Agricultural exhibitions are organised with the objective of introducing the farmers to latest technology, new agricultural experiments and research. Indigenous seeds and indigenous breed of cattle is given priority. Research programmes on ‘goat’ were conducted on pan-Indian level. Goat keeping (Sheli Palan) is encouraged as an occupation for enhancing the life standard of tribal people. 

It has largely become their principal source of livelihood. In rural areas poultry farming of indigenous variety was encouraged. Thus, India is making significant progress in the fields of animal husbandry, dairy and milk production, fisheries, live stock, poultry, meat and wool production. Ours is a leading country in milk production. The ‘National Livestock Mission’ was established in 2014-15 and since then there is rapid growth in the livestock sector. 

This mission provides for availability of fodder, loan, organizing the cattle keepers and resolving their difficulties. In 1919-20, the first livestock census was conducted. Since then it is being done regularly. The ‘2012 Livestock Census’ was nineteenth in the series. China ranks the first in fish production while India ranks the second. Fishing has been an important occupation in India, which is now supplemented with fish farming (pisciculture). This sector is growing rapidly

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana : The Government of India, knowing the importance of having roads in good conditions in the interior areas, started ‘Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana’ in 2000. Initially, the work of building roads began by linking the villages of population strength up to 1000. In 2001, this programme was merged in ‘Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojana’. 

The roads measuring about 75000 Km. were completed till 2005. The purpose of this work was to extend the benefits of country’s economic growth to people living in rural areas and to bring transformation in their lives. It aimed at providing amenities for good health, education, drinking water, dwellings, roads and electricity.

11.2.2 Urban Development Plans Jnnurm – Jawaharlal Nehru Naional Urban Renewal Mission : This programme was launched in 2005. The mission is for massive modernisation of the cities through modifications in road building, public transport, wastewater disposal and management systems and sewage disposal systems, housing for the poor, etc.

Golden Quadrilateral (Suvarna Chatushkon Yojana) : In 1998, Government of India announced a programme of creating national highway network to join the four megacities - Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. National Highways Authority of India is managing this project. This project aimed at tasks like developing two highways about 7300 km. in length linking all the four quarters of the country, to provide rapid transportation to important port cities in the country. The programme progressed rapidly by completing ¼ of the total length of the highways till 2008.

Metro Railway : The Delhi Metro railway was flagged off in 2002. Metro railway running above and underground has introduced a major change in the public transport system of the metropolises of India. It facilitated speedy and smooth transit.

11.2.3 Means of Communication Postal Department : In 1766, the British established the post office in India. Thus, the ‘Indian Postal Department’ is more than 250 years old. The postal department, which once only delivered letters, has undergone total reformation. It has entered in the field of banking. 

The postal department has introduced various schemes such as, ‘Postal Savings Accounts’, ‘Term Deposits’, ‘Public Provident Fund (PPF)’, ‘Kisan Vikas Patra’, ‘Sukanya Samruddhi Account’, and so on. To improve its services, in all 23,557 postal offices were brought under ‘Core Banking Solutions’, till 2018. Automated Teller Machines (ATM) were installed at many branches. Mutual Fund products of ‘Unit Trust of India’ were made available to customers at postal offices. The postal department is also offering money transfer services to Non Resident Indians.

Speed Post : The service of ‘Speed Post’ changed the very nature of Indian Postal Service. This service was started in 1986. Many people take advantage of this service, to the tune of more than three crores of letters and parcels being delivered every month. The postal department sends a message of successful delivery on the mobile phone of the sender. 

This facility has made the speed post service more reliable. In addition, the postal department now offers courier services like delivery of passport, business parcels, cash-on-delivery, logistics post and air freights. Earlier, if anybody wanted to post letters or gift articles, etc. on a larger scale, the tasks like putting the letters in envelopes or packaging of the gift articles, the sender had to do them personally. Now the post office offers the packaging service at extra charge. This has increased the business of the postal department. 

There are one lakh and fifty five thousand post offices, which are offering services like paying various bills, sending festive greetings cards and similar objects. The postal department has started a very novel service since 2016 of delivering Ganges water (Ganga Jal) at personal addresses from Rishikesh and Gangotri. Along with it facilities like buying personalised postage stamps with a personal photograph, buying newly issued postage stamps at philatelic centres, special schemes for philatelists are available at ‘Post Shops’ opened at 80 post offices.

The postal department is also concerned with the requirements of philatelists. Philately is a valued hobby at international level. Special limited issues of artistic postage stamps are published by the postal department. In the year, from April 2017 to March 2018, the postal department published 50 issues of postage stamps based on various themes. 

It included the subjects like Meghalaya Caves, rare Indian birds, Ramayan, Mahabharat, Indian cuisine, Winning designs of ‘nests’ from a children’s competition, ‘Heritage’ architectural wells (for example, ‘Rani ki Vav’), Hand fans, Solar system, Indian headgears, Centenary of the Champarnya Satyagrah, etc. The postage stamps of Ramayana were distributed in 40 countries through the Indian embassies.

11.3 Economic Issues An example is cited here to have a glance of the economic growth. 93 Ministry of Disinvestment : The Government of India established a separate ‘Ministry of Disinvestment’ to take care of its disinvestment policy, i.e. the gradual withdrawal of governmental investment in the public sectors. The Government is focusing on reducing its investment in the sectors like mining, petroleum refineries, roads and highways, port trusts, telecommunication and foreign investments in these sectors are now permitted. 

The policies of ‘Privatisation, Liberalisation and Globalisation’ (popularly known as ‘KHAUJA’), boosted the confidence of Indian companies and some of them established themselves in global markets by acquiring foreign companies in the steel, pharmaceuticals, tea production and also automobiles sectors. In 2016, the ‘Ministry of Disinvestment’ was renamed as ‘Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM)’.

11.4 BRICS This organisation was established in 2006. Its name is formed by adopting the first letter of the names of the participant countries. The participant member are Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This organisation was established with an aim of enhancing the trade among these countries. The 11th conference of BRICS was organised in Brazil. The theme of this conference was ‘Economic Growth for an Innovative Future’. Subjects like technological co-operation, technology and innovation, digital economy, international crime, financial scams were discussed. (Ref. : BRICS.org.pib.nic.in)

11.5 Science and Technology Only a few instances of significance are mentioned in this part. A super-computer named as ‘Param-8000’ was created with the help of C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing), Pune. In 1998, an advanced version of ‘Param-8000’ was made, which was named as ‘Param-10000’. Its mathematical potential was enormous, because of which India entered the global computer market. India won its place among the leading countries with high technological knowhow of computer making. In 1999, a project of creating a still further version of ‘Param-10000’ was undertaken. 

This computer was named as ‘Parampadma’. ‘Parampadma Super Computer’ was dedicated to the nation in 2003. The Indian software industry was benefitted because of the policy of liberalisation. The Central Government’s favourable policies for software industry, foresightedness of the Indian entrepreneurs, the nationwide spread of computer and information technology, computer engineers who are also proficient in the use of English language resulted in tremendous increase in the Indian export of software.

 It increased from 3.2% to more than 25%. In 1995, internet services began in the Indian metropolises. In 2004, Tata Consultancy was the biggest firm in Asia providing software services. Pune and Bengaluru developed as Information Technology (IT) hubs. The population in India using internet services is rapidly increasing. Indian IT engineers are in great demand all over the world. 

In the field of science, India, to prove its nuclear strength, conducted underground nuclear tests two times at Pokharan in Rajasthan. The Indian satellite, ‘Oceansat-1’ launched and entered the orbit in 1999 to collect oceanographic information (about oceans and seacoasts). In 2000, ‘Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd., (BSNL) was established to provide services like cellular phones (mobile phones), internet and broadband.

In 2007, India entered a new field of space research. It commercially launched the Italian satellite. Other nations had submitted tenders quoting very high rates, to get this contract. However, India got this contract by quoting reasonable rates. Nevertheless, India earned considerable profit through the Italian contract. Before entering this field on commercial basis, India had already successfully launched the satellites of Argentina, Belgium, South Korea, Indonesia and Germany. 

In 2008, India launched ‘Chandrayaan-1’, the first lunar probe. Through the information sent by ‘Chandrayaan-1’, India could collect evidence for the presence of water on the moon. After that India also launched ‘Chandrayaan-2’ and ‘Mangalyaan’

11.6 Defence Affairs In 1999 Pakistan intruded Kashmir. This intrusion started a war between India and Pakistan. This war was fought in the Kargil-Drass area in Ladakh. Hence it is known as ‘Kargil War’. It is also referred to as ‘Operation Vijay’ by the Indian army. ‘Operation Vijay’ was successful and India emerged victorious in it. This war alerted the Indian authorities for modernisation of the Indian military.

 Processes of updating the military, equipments and arms, training, etc. were further intensified. In 2009, India successfully built a ‘Strategic Strike Nuclear Submarine’, of ‘Arihant’ Class. This was the first nuclear submarine built in India. Its first patrol round was completed with Russia’s co-operation. Thus, India is the sixth country in the world to develop indigenous technology of building nuclear submarines. The Indian Government had involved private Indian entrepreneurs too, in this project.

The Government of India emphasised on indigenous production by using indigenous technology (‘Make in India’), on recruiting women officers in military and also on combined Exercise with militaries of other nations. There is increasing focus on the exchange of latest technology, to fight terrorism, to augment our own competencies and optimum use of modern technology for ending terrorism. The Exercise with Oman military at Bakloh, Himachal Pradesh, is apparently the result of these policies. In the Exercise with Nepal 

the thrust was on the critical tactics to fight with terrorists in mountainous terrains. There were combined Exercise of Mangolian army and ‘Jammu and Kashmir Rifles’. The Exercise of Indian and American army together was done in America. The Exercise with Sri Lankan army was organised in Pune. This practice session was meant for training the soldiers for fighting terrorism in semi-urban environment. Exercise with Russian military was organised in Russia. Similar Exercise were organised with Bangladesh and England as well. 

Such exercises are useful for both countries because of the technological exchange that happens on these occasions. They help to know and practice new methods of resolving problems. The process of modernisation of arms gives impetus to further research. To join the armed forces is one of the best careers for young people. There are about eight sections in the Indian army where women officers can join on short service commission. Women can join through Union Public Service Commision. There are a few reserved seats for women, who have completed N.C.C. training. 

11.7 Youth related Policies India is a country with maximum proportion of young people. Individuals in the age group of 15-29 are considered as ‘Youth’. The ‘Youth’, if provided with opportunities of education and skill training, can contribute significantly in the development of India. A number of centres of ‘Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan’ were established in 1972. These centres began training young people for various skills. The programmes run by these centres were eventually merged in ‘National Youth Empowerment Programme’. 

This programme put a thrust on topics like literacy, education, health and hygiene, family welfare, preservation and conservation of environment, awareness of social issues, rural development and self employment. 12th January is the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekanand. It is observed as ‘National Youth Day’. Every year, National Youth Festival is celebrated in the month of January. 

This festival is organised jointly by the Government of India and one of the State Governments. This festival is designed to provide a platform for the artisitic talents of young individuals. ‘Youth Hostels Association of India’ has established youth hostels in various parts of the country. These hostels are managed in collaboration by the Government of India and respective state governments. ‘Youth Hostels Association’ works for encouraging the adventure skills among young people. There are about 83 hostels 

in India, which provide accommodation to young people at minimum rates. The training programmes are arranged by this association through ‘Bharat Scouts and Guides’, ‘National Service Scheme’ and ‘National Cadet Corps’

11.8 Right to Information Act, 2005 This kind of Act was first applied in Sweden in 1776. In 1946, ‘United Nations’ declared the ‘Right to Information’, to be the fundamental human right. In 1982, L.K. Kulwal, a resident of Jaipur in Rajasthan, a social activist, initiated the process by applying to know the Jaipur Municipal Corporation’s work for cleaning the city. In the case filed in this matter, the High Court, gave a clear verdict stating that ‘Right to Information’ is a fundamental right of all citizens. In 1990, Aruna Roy started the movement called as ‘Majdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan’. 

A need for ‘Right to Information’ was expressed through this movement. The Divisional Commissioner of Bilaspur of that time, Harsh Mander, showed courage to disclose official information while serving as a bureaucrat. The information he disclosed was in the context of the programme of distributing food grains in lieu of daily wages. The struggle of Anna Hazare in 2001, had a decisive role in Maharashtra in this matter. The Act was implemented in Maharashtra since 12th October 2005. 

The definition of the term ‘information’ includes official records, documents, memoranda, e-mails, comments, consultations, press notes, circulars, orders, logbooks, tenders, reports, correspondence, formats, models, electronic data, the

information of a private institution or an individual that is available in the records of any public establishment. Right to information grants access to official documents, records, permission to obtain their copies, to take notes, to extract passages, to get samples of authorised material and prints of data stored in CDs, Floppy discs, Tapes, Video Cassettes or in any other form, or stored on computers. Citizens can get the desired information after submitting an application to ‘Information Officer’ of a Public Authority. 

11.9 Reorganisation of States The year 2000 proved to be important for the formation of new states. States with large areas (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) were divided and new states were formed. New states, namely, Chhattisgarh (1st November 2000), Uttarakhand (9th November 2000) and Jharkhand (15th November 2000) came into existence. After the formations of lingual states in India, this was the first instance of formation of new states.

Chhattisgarh : The demand for the creation of separate state of Chhattisgarh was first put forth in the session of Indian National Congress in pre-independence times. However, ‘States Reorganisation Commission headed by Fazal Ali, rejected the demand. In 1998, in the session of the Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh, the proposal of creating a separate state of Chhattisgarh was approved. Later, by the initiative of the Government of India, the separate state of Chhattisgarh was created

Uttarakhand : The people of Garhwal and Kumaon were demanding for a separate state since 1930. It was supported in the 1938 session of Indian National Congress. However, the Fazal Ali Commision ruled it out. The people in this region started a movement for their demand in 1957. In 97 1973, ‘Uttarakhand Parvatiya Rajya Parishad’ was established. In 1994, the movement got intensified. In recognition of the popular sentiment, a bill for separate state was passed by the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Finally, in 2000 the state of Uttaranchal (later named as Uttarakhand) came into being.

Jharkhand : In 1929, the demand for separate state of Jharkhand was staged for the first time. In 1947, All India Jharkhand Party was established and the demand for a separate state of Jharkhand was accelerated. In 1973, an appeal was presented to the President and the Prime Minster. In 1994, the Bihar Legislative Assembly passed the bill of ‘Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC)’. In August 2000, a bill providing for Bihar’s division and creation of a separate state of Jharkhand was passed in the lower house of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). On the day of 15th November 2000, the separate state of Jharkhand came into existence.

Telangana : The state of Telangana was formed in 2014. Earlier it was an integral part of the state of Andhra Pradesh. ‘Telangana Rashtriya Samiti’ started the movement for the creation of a separate state of Telangana. In 2001, Government of India announced the decision of the separate  state of Telangana. In 2014, this proposal was approved in the parliament. On 2nd June 2014, the separate state of Telangana came into existence. 

Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh : The state of Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh was given a special status by ‘Article 370’ of the Constitution of India. In 1947, Prem Nath Dogra established ‘Jammu Praja Parishad’ party. Its initial motto was ‘Ek Vidhan, Ek Pradhan, Ek Nishan’. Later, in 1952, it was changed to ‘Ek Desh me Do Vidhan, Do Pradhan, Do Nishan Nahi Chalenge, Nahi Chalenge’. This party demanded complete accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. 

The party in power, National Conference, however, was not ready to give up the autonomy of the state. Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (Minister for Industry and Supply in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s Cabinet) supported the demand of complete merger. Recently in August 2019, Government of India revoked ‘Article 370’. From 31st October 2019 the state of Jammu and Kashmir was restructured as two separate Union Territories of ‘Jammu-Kashmir’ and ‘Ladakh’. In the next lesson we will study Social domain, Sports as well as Tourism. 

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Balbharati Solutions for History 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1: Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
Chapter 2: European Colonialism
Chapter 3: India and European Colonialism
Chapter 4: Colonialism and the Marathas
Chapter 5: India: Social and Religious Reforms
Chapter 6: Indian Struggle against Colonialism
Chapter 7: Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
Chapter 8: World Wars and India
Chapter 9: World : Decolonisation
Chapter 10: Cold War
Chapter 11: India Transformed - Part 1
Chapter 12: India Transformed - Part 2

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