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Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | Questions and answers

Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers

Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question - 1. In 1946, under the leadership of the movement of ____________ ‘Civil Disobedience’ was launched in Goa.

[a] Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia
[b] Dr. T.B. Kunha
[c] Dr. P.P. Shirodkar
[d] Dr. Ram Hegde
Solutions :
[a] Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia

Question - 2. Hyderabad’s struggle of freedom was led skillfully by ____________

[a] King Hari Singh
[b] Swami Ramanand Tirth
[c] Pandit Mahadevshastri Joshi
[d] Keshavrao Jedhe
Solutions :
[b] Swami Ramanand Tirth


Question - 3. The princely states in India were merged in India mainly through the efforts of ____________

[a] Jayantrao Tilak
[b] Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
[c] Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
[d] Dr. T.B. Kunha
Solutions :
[b] Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel


1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.

Question - 1.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
1. Merger of the princely state of HyderabadSwami Ramanand Tirth
2. Merger of the princely state of KashmirShaikh Abdullah
3. Significant contribution in the ‘Goa Liberation MovementMohan Ranade
4. The trade unionist leader in PuducherryV. Subbayya

2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question - 1. The President of Goa Congress Committee –

Solutions :
Dr. T.B. Kunha

Question - 2. The princely states that did not merge in India immediately after its independence –
Solutions :
Junagadh, Hyderabad, Kashmir, Dadra and Haveli, Goa and Puducherry


3. Observe the map on textbook page 61 and answer the Question -s based on it.

Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers

Question - 1. Name the countries located at the northwest border of India.

Solutions :
Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Question - 2. Which places in India were the centers of Portuguese rule?

Solutions :
Goa, Dadra and Nagar haveli, Diu and Daman.

Question - 3. Which place on the eastern coast of India were the centers of French rule?

Solutions :
Puducherry, Yanam and Karaikal.

Question - 4. Which nation is located at the southern tip of India?

Solutions :
Sri Lanka


4. Complete the following concept map.

Question - 1.
Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers

Solutions :
Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers

5. Explain the following statements with reasons.

Question - 1. Ultimately the princely state of Hyderabad was merged in India.

Solutions :
  1. Hyderabad was under Nizam rule, it was the largest amongst princely states along with Telugu, Kannada, and Marathi regional sections.
  2. The various organisation was formed to fight against Nizam’s policies for his people.
  3. Swami Ramanand Tirth alongside loyal workers were leading this organisation to gain freedom from the Nizam.
  4. Hyderabad State Congress passed a resolution that Hyderabad will merge in India and this was not liked by Nizam, he was willing to join Pakistan.
  5. The people of Hyderabad wanted to merge in India.
  6. Kasim Razvi formed a ‘Razakar’ organisation against people.
  7. In the end, the Indian Government launched a police campaign against Nizam, under the name ‘Operation Polo’.
  8. In 1948 Nizam surrendered and Hyderabad merged in India.

Question - 2. Puducherry was declared as a Union territory.

Solutions :
  1. Puducherry was under the French colony. India was under the impression that the British and Portuguese will send a message to the French to leave India, however, this did not happen.
  2. Puducherry, Mahe, Yanam, and Chandranagar in West Bengal were under French control.
  3. The people of Puducherry got united under Subbayya, a communist politician and leader.
  4. The government noticed it as serious and strongly demanded that French governments should return all the regions held by them.
  5. In 1948, a bilateral agreement was signed by both governments. In 1949, Chandranagar was merged.
  6. In 1954, all French colonies were merged in India. In 1962, the French Parliament approved the bilateral agreement and in 1963, Puducherry became the ‘Union Territory’ of India.

6. State your opinion.

Question - 1. Andhra, Karnataka, Maharashtra Councils [Parishad] were found in the princely state of Hyderabad.

Solutions :
  1. Hyderabad was the largest amongst princely states in India. It comprised Telugu, Kannada, and Marathi regional sections. It was ruled by Nizam.
  2. Nizam of Hyderabad had put many restrictions on the Civil and Political rights of his subjects to a great extent.
  3. To fight against such restrictions in the state, people had formed organizations like ‘Andhra Parishad’ in Telangana, ‘Maharashtra Parishad’ in Marathwada, and ‘Karnataka Parishad’ in Karnataka.

Question - 2. The Portuguese rule in Goa remained untouched till 1961.

Solutions :
  • Goa was under Portuguese control. There prevailed a general notion among Indians that the departure of the British from India would send a signal to the Portuguese and the French to leave India on their own.
  • However, this did not happen and many freedom fighters like Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Dr. Kunha, and many more have contributed to the struggle against the Portuguese.
  • At last, the Indian govt has sent the army, under Operation Vijay, to make Goa free from Portuguese control and became a part of India on 19th December 1961.

Try to do this [Textbook Page No. 58

Try to collect information about the newspapers published during ‘Hyderabad Freedom Struggle’ with the help of the internet.
Solutions :
Students should do it on their own.

Try to do this [Textbook Page No. 60]

Collect information about the fort of Panaji and make a poster about the fort.
Solutions :
Students should do it on their own.


Project [Textbook Page No. 62

Collect information about the ‘Gorta Massacre’ a very important instance in the struggle for liberating Hyderabad. To get more information about it visit the following website: www.bhausahebumate.com

Solutions :
[i] As we know Qasim Razvi, had founded the Razakar organisation [Nizam’s private military] to help Nizam to suppress the voice of people against Nizam of Hyderabad. Gorta was the name of a village [Karnataka] and people were massacred by Razakars of Hyderabad in 1948. Gorta Village is also known as Jaliyanwala Bag of Karanataka, it was a mass killing on May 9th and 10th 1948. Though a plaque kept in front of the village gives fight date May 5th, and it continued for two weeks. It is said that around 200 people were killed by Razakars and property destruction was worth ₹ 70 lakhs.

[ii] A folk song called ‘Bhulai pada’ sung by village women in bitter memory of the massacre. There is demand from village people in front of the Government for the construction of the memorial at Gorta. Local people and local political parties had collected ₹ 27 lakh for a 35-foot memorial and laid the foundation on September 17th, 2014.


Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers


‘Decolonisation’ is the process of ending the colonial rule and handing over the political and administrative power to local people by the colonialists. Opposition to colonialism, struggle for independence and the nations under colonisation regaining their independence are the three stages of decolonisation process. India became independent on 15th August 1947. 

However, at that time there existed several Princely States in India, which were ruled by the hereditary rulers under British suzerainty. These states were given the choice to decide whether to accede to India or not. If these states had decided against it, then it would have become very difficult to create the Indian Union. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the first Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister of India, pursued most of the rulers of these states in favour of acceding to India so that political integration of India could be possible. In this lesson, we are going to take a brief review of these events.



7.1 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India When India gained independence, there were more than 600 princely states of various size. Their political integration was the biggest challenge faced by the leaders of independent India. There was political awakening in the Princely States because of Non Co-operation movement. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel handled the situation with great skill and tact. He took a conciliatory approach and won the confidence of the rulers of these states. With the exception of Junagadh, Hyderabad, and Kashmir remaining states responded positively to the appeal and merged in India. Later, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel adopted a stern policy and resolved the problem of the accession of those states, who were unwilling to accede

Junagadh : It was a princely state in Saurashtra (Gujarat). The people of this state were ready to accede to India while its Nawab wanted to merge in Pakistan. However common people opposed the Nawab’s decision. He escaped to Pakistan. In February 1948, Junagadh merged in India.

Hyderabad Freedom Struggle : Hyderabad was the largest amongst the princely states in India. It comprised Telugu, Kannada and Marathi regional sections. It was ruled by Nizam. He put restrictions on the civil and political rights of his subjects to a great extent. To fight against the suppressive policies of Nizam people of the state established various organisations, namely. ‘Andhra Parishad’ in Telangana, ‘Maharashtra Parishad’ in Marathawada and ‘Karnataka Parishad’ in Karnataka. Swami Ramanand Tirtha led Hyderabad freedom struggle skillfully with the help of loyal workers of these three organisations. He founded the ‘Hyderbad State Congress’ and gave a momentum to the struggle for Hyderabad’s accession


The ‘Hyderabad State Congress’ passed a resolution in favour of Hyderabad’s merger in India. It was opposed by Nizam for the fear of losing his hold. He was willing to join Pakistan. The people were in favour of India while the ruler was in favour of Pakistan. Kasim Razvi, who could exercise considerable influence over Nizam, founded an organisation called ‘Razakar’. Kasim Razvi and his organisation practiced many atrocities against the people who were fighting for democracy. Nizam was adamant on his policies. He was averse to any negotiations and closed all channels of mediation. Ultimately the Indian Government launched a police campaign against Nizam. This campaign was named as ‘Operation Polo’. On 17th September 1948, Nizam finally surrendered and Hyderabad state was merged in India.

The Kashmir Issue : Hari Singh, the ruling king of the State of Kashmir, had decided neither to join India, nor Pakistan after India’s independence. However, Pakistan had plans to annex Kashmir to its territory. Therefore, Pakistan began to pressurise King Hari Singh. On 22nd October 1947, armed bands of intruders attacked Kashmir from the Pakistan border. King Hari Singh, who wanted to maintain independent status, asked India for help. On 27th October 1947, he consented to merge Kashmir in India and officially submitted the Agreement (Instrument of Accession) to the Government of India. 

The Indian Army was sent for Kashmir’s protection. It captured a significant portion of Kashmir’s territory that was acquired by the armed intruders from Pakistani border, however, they managed to keep their hold on some portion. In 1948, India presented the Kashmir issue in ‘United Nations’. Thus, Kashmir issue became an international issue. Even the ‘United Nations’ could not persuade Pakistan to withdraw their troops from the territory of Kashmir occupied by them. However, then the ‘National Conference Party’ decided on plebiscite to solve the issue and to accede Kashmir to India. The constitution of Jammu and Kashmir was drafted and since then JammuKashmir has been an integral part of the Republic of India. It was accorded a special status under ‘Article 370’

7.2 Dadra and Nagar-Haveli Dadra and Nagar-Haveli are located in the interior parts of Gujarat coast. It is on the northern banks of the river Damanganga. It was part of Portuguese dominion and was administered by a Portuguese governor. It was anticipated that after India’s independence the Portuguese would hand over these regions to India and quit. However they did not do so. Therefore, the local people in Dadra and Nagar-Haveli rose against the Portuguese. The organisations, namely, ‘United Front of Goans’, 

‘Azad Gomantak Dal’ came together and planned a campaign to free these regions from the Portuguese rule. In 1954, Francis Mascarenhas, Vimal Sardesai, the leaders of ‘Azad Gomantak Dal’ intensified the struggle. With fierce protestations people captured Nagar-Haveli. The other organisation, ‘United Front of Goans’ took hold of Dadra. ‘Rashtravadi Mukti Sena’, a branch of ‘Azad Gomantak Dal’ took over Naroli, Pimparia and some part of Silvasa. Local police stations and administrative offices were attacked. Public unrest reached such extent that the Portuguese army had to beat a retreat. 

The Portuguese Captain Fidalgo surrendered. The Government of India appointed K.G. Badalani to bring normalcy in administration in these area. According to the agreement with the Indian Government, the region of Dadra and Nagar-Haveli was merged in India on 2nd August 1954. Vishvanath Lavande, Rajabhau Vakankar, Sudhir Phadke, Nanasaheb Kajarekar, Nilubhau Limaye, Vasant Zanjale and many others participated in this struggle. In 1961 Dadra and Nagar-Haveli were given the status of ‘Union Territories’.

7.3 Goa The movement of liberating Goa from the Portuguese rule had begun during preindependence times only. In 1928, ‘Goa Congress Committee’ was founded in Mumbai. Dr.T. B. Kunha was the president of this committee. In 1929, Goa Congress Committee became an integral branch of

Indian National Congress. In 1939, posters with ‘Quit Goa’ slogans were posted all over Goa. Francis Mascarenhas, the President of United Goan Front unfurled the Indian flag in Goa. In 1946, under the leadership of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, the movement of ‘Civil Disobedience’ was launched in Goa. Dr.Lohia was arrested and was deported from Goa. Dr.T.B. Kunha, Purushottam Kakodkar, Dr. Ram Hegde, Dr. P. P. Shirodkar and Gopal Mayekar were arrested for participating in the satyagraha at Madgaon. Dr. Kunha was imprisoned for eight years. 

He was sent to a prison in Portugal. Later, after returning to India, he started publishing two newspapers, namely, ‘Azad Goa’ and ‘Swatantra Goa’. After India’s independence, the movement for liberating Goa took roots in Maharashtra. In 1954, the ‘Goa Vimochan Sahayak Samiti’ was founded at Pune. Keshavarao Jedhe, N.G. Gore, and Jayantrao Tilak took on the responsibility of directing the movement. Some groups who volunteered for the cause of Goa’s liberation marched to Goa under the leadership of N.G. Gore and Senapati Bapat.

 One group of those volunteers unfurled the national flag of India on the fort of Panaji. There were a number of other eminent people, who participated in the Goa liberation movement. It included people like Pandit Mahadevshastri Joshi, Shirubhau Limaye, Peter Alvaris and Sudha Joshi. The contribution of Mohan Ranade in this 

struggle is very significant. He systematically began anti-Portuguese propaganda in Goa. With the help of Azad Gomantak Dal, he also started armed struggle against the Portuguese. During an attack on a police station, he was shot and got injured. Portuguese Government kept him in jail till 1972. Acharya P.K. Atre used the daily newspaper ‘Maratha’, published by him as a platform for supporting the movement. The strong public sentiments in the matter of Goa’s liberation moved Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to act on it. 

A mission was planned under the code name, ‘Operation Vijay’. Indian army descended in Goa to accomplish the mission. The army was helped by local civilians as well. They showed the army the places where, the Portuguese had planted landmines. The Portuguese surrendered within 48 hours. On 19th December 1961, Goa became a part of the Indian Republic. The foreign rule of 450 years came to an end 7.4 Puducherry When India got its independence, Puducherry was still a French colony. 

There prevailed a general notion among Indians that departure of the British from India would send a signal the Portuguese and the French to leave India on their own. However, it was not to be so. The dispersed regions including Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam and also Chandranagar in West Bengal were ruled by the French. The French Government was unwilling to surrender these regions. People at Puducherry got united under the leadership of V. Subbayya, a communist politician and a trade unionist. Taking a serious note of the happenings in Puducherry, the Government of India strongly demanded that the French Government return the Indian regions held by them. 

In June 1948, a bilateral agreement was signed between both the governments. Thus, it became possible to resolve the Puducherry issue by way of negotiations, public movements and governmental actions. In 1949-50, after a positive public poll, Chandranagar was merged in the Indian Republic. Later, on 13th October 1954, by a bilateral agreement between the Indian Government and French Government, the minutes of the merger process were drafted. 

The vote in the Legislative Assembly and in the Municipal Corporation was in the support of accession. On 1st November 1954, all French colonies in India were merged in India. In 1962, the French Parliament approved of the bilateral agreement and in 1963 Puducherry was declared to be a ‘Union Territory’. Under the leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Princely States in India were acceded to India and became integral part of the Indian Republic. Thus, the process of political integration of India was completed. In the next lesson we are going to review the ‘World Wars’ and its impact on India. 

Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India | decolonisation to political integration of india questions and answers

 
Balbharati Solutions for History 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1: Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
Chapter 2: European Colonialism
Chapter 3: India and European Colonialism
Chapter 4: Colonialism and the Marathas
Chapter 5: India: Social and Religious Reforms
Chapter 6: Indian Struggle against Colonialism
Chapter 7: Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
Chapter 8: World Wars and India
Chapter 9: World : Decolonisation
Chapter 10: Cold War
Chapter 11: India Transformed - Part 1
Chapter 12: India Transformed - Part 2

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