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India : Social and Religious Reforms Questions And Answers | India : Social and Religious Reforms 12th

India : Social and Religious Reforms Questions And Answers | India : Social and Religious Reforms 12th

India : Social and Religious Reforms Questions And Answers | India : Social and Religious Reforms 12th

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question - 1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote an English letter against the ___________

[a] caste system
[b] child marriage
[c] practice of sati
[d] segregation of women [Purdah system]
Solutions :
[c] practice of sati

Question - 2. ‘Arya Samaj’ was founded by ___________

[a] Swami Vivekanand
[b] Mahatma Jotirao Phule
[c] Swami Dayanand Saraswati
[d] Ramaswamy Naikar
Solutions :
[c] Swami Dayanand Saraswati


1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.


Question - 1.
Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
(a) Brahmo SamajRaja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Satyashodhak SamajMahatma Jotirao Phule
(c) Paramhamsa SabhaMaharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde
(d) Ramkrishna MissionSwami Vivekanand

2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question - 1. The title conferred on Raja Ram Mohan Roy by the Mughal Badshah-

Solutions :
Raja

Question - 2. The one who founded ‘Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College’-

Solutions :
Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan

Question - 3. The one who participated in ‘Vykom Satyagraha’-

Solutions :
Ramaswamy Naikar

Question - 4. The one who made the law of free and compulsory primary education in Kolhapur Princely State-

Solutions :
Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj


3. Write short notes.

Question - 1. Prarthana Samaj.

Solutions :
Prarthana Samaj:
  1. Had its origins in Paramhamsa Sabha.
  2. Founded by Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar.
  3. Founding members like Dr. Atmaram Pandurang, Justice M. G. Ranade, Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar opposed idol worship and emphasized monotheism.
  4. Opened schools for girls, orphanages, and night schools for workers.
  5. Focussed on gender equality, wiping outcaste discriminations, and appreciating the values of mundane life.

Question - 2. Satyashodhak Samaj.

Solutions :
Satyashodhak Samaj:

  1. Founded in 1873 by Mahatma Jotirao Phule in Pune.
  2. Cracked a whip on the social customs and practices which pushed the Indian masses into a miserable state.
  3. Showed a new path to artisans, workers, and other downtrodden people.
  4. Characteristics of Satyashodhak Samaj included monotheism, rejection of the authority of Vedas and Puranas, acceptance of rationality, opposition to the dominance of priests and idol worship, etc.
  5. Mahatma Phule and his wife Savitribai Phule started a school for girls.
  6. His work was continued by Gopalbaba Walangkar who criticized untouchability in his book ‘Vital Vidhwamsan’.
  7. Shivram Janba drew attention to the problems of deprived women like Murali, Jagatini, and Devdasi.

4. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question - 1. What were the social reforms on which Raja Ram Mohan Roy put a great emphasis?

Solutions :
Contribution of Raja Ram Mohan Roy:
  1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in Bengal.
  2. Translated Sanskrit Upanishads into Bengali.
  3. He was a witness to his brother’s wife immolating herself on her husband’s funeral pyre and this incident made him raise his voice against this evil social custom which according to him is not mentioned in any of the religious scriptures as a prescribed social obligation.
  4. It was due to the efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy that a law was passed by the Governor-General of Bengal Lord William Bentinck abolishing Sati in 1829.
  5. He was also opposed to child marriage and purdah, opened an English medium school, launched the first periodical in Bengali, and also another publication in Persian.
  6. He started ‘Atmiya Sabha’, a philosophical discussion circle,’ Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
  7. He spoke in support of the anti-colonial movements in Spanish colonies in South America.
  8. Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation of modernity in India.
  9. Organizations like Manavdharma Sabha, Paramahamsa Sabha, and Dnyanprasar Sabha were inspired by his work.

Question - 2. Write about the contributions of the Ramkrishna Mission.

Solutions :
Ramkrishna Mission:
  1. Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramkrishna Mission in 1897.
  2. Focussed on serving needy people, working for people affected by famine, health care for the sick people, education for women, etc.
  3. It also gave a message to the Indian youth to get up to awaken and keep moving until the goal is achieved.

Question - 3. Write about the contributions of Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan.

Solutions :
Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan:
  1. Was born in 1817 in Delhi.
  2. Fluent in Urdu, Persian, Arabic, and English.
  3. Established ‘Scientific Society’ for Muslims.
  4. After returning from England he founded the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875 which later developed into ‘Aligarh Muslim University.
  5. Started a periodical entitled ‘Mohammadan Social Reformer’.
  6. Worked for the propagation of modern education, science, and technology.

Question - 4. Describe the contribution of Ramaswamy Naikar.

Solutions :
Ramaswamy Naikar:
  1. Born in ‘Erode’ in Tamil Nadu in 1879.
  2. He became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy and worked for propagating the use of ‘Swadeshi’.
  3. He participated in the Vykom Satyagraha in Travancore against untouchability.
  4. Started the ‘Swabhiman Andolan’ in Tamil Nadu.
  5. Fought against the varna system and child marriage.
  6. He was addressed as ‘Periyar’ or Great Soul because of his magnanimous work.
  7. Was a great speaker and author.
  8. Took a radical position on issues like women’s rights and family planning.


India : Social and Religious Reforms Questions And Answers | India : Social and Religious Reforms 12th

Let us find out. [Textbook Page No. 36]

Collect information about ‘Singh Sabha’ that was founded in Amritsar.

Solutions :
The Singh Sabha Movement was a Sikh movement that began in Punjab in the 1870s in reaction to the proselytizing activities of Christians, Hindu reform movements [Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj], and Muslims [Aligarh movement and Ahmadiyah]. The movement was founded in an era when the Sikh Empire had been dissolved and annexed by the British, the Khalsa had lost its prestige, and mainstream Sikhs were rapidly converting to other religions.

The movement’s aims were to propagate the true Sikh religion and restore Sikhism to its pristine glory; to write and distribute historical and religious books of Sikhs, and to propagate Gurmukhi Punjabi through magazines and media. The movement sought to reform Sikhism and bring back into the Sikh fold the apostates who had converted to other religions; as well as to interest the influential British officials in furthering the Sikh community. At the time of its founding, the Singh Sabha policy was to avoid criticism of other religions and political matters.

Try to do this [Textbook Page No. 36]

Collect information with the help of the internet and teachers about these people: Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Vishnushastri Pandit, Veereshlingam Pantalu, and Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve.

Solutions :
[A] Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:

  • Pandit Vidyasagar was born on 26th September 1820 in the Midnapore district of Bengal Presidency [now in West Bengal].
  • A Sanskrit scholar, he joined Fort William College as the Head Pandit in the Sanskrit department in 1846.
  • In 1846, he left Fort William and joined Sanskrit College as ‘Assistant Secretary’.
  • In 1851, he became the principal of Sanskrit College.
  • In 1854, Vidyasagar started his campaign for widow remarriage.
  • Due to his efforts, the ‘Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856.
  • He was keen to advocate for education for women.
  • He exercised his power and lobbied hard for the opening of schools for girls.
  • He gave more importance to educational reforms than social reforms.
  • He emphasized teaching through Mother’s tongue.
  • He has enriched Bengali Education System by writing many good textbooks for students.
  • Vidyasagar died in 1891 at the age of 70.

[B] Vishnushastri Pandit:
  • Vishnushastri Pandit was born in a Chitpavan Brahmin family to Sanskrit scholar Krishnashastri Chiplunkar.
  • Worked as a school teacher in government schools during the years 1872-1879.
  • Co-founded the newspapers Kesari [Marathi] and Mahratta [English] along with Lokmanya Tilak and Gopal Ganesh Agarkar.
  • Also co-founded The New English School in Pune.
  • Began his career as a writer
  • In 1874, he started the monthly ‘Nibandmala’ for which he is principally remembered.
  • Translated the following works in Marathi-
  • Rasselas by Samuel Johnson
  • Kadambari by Banabhatta
  • The Arabian Nights
 

[C] Veereshlingam Pantalu:

  • Rao Bahadur Kandukuri Veereshlingam Pantalu was considered the ’Father of Renaissance movement in Telugu’.
  • Born on 16th April 1848 at Rajamundry, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Social reformer and writer at Madras Presidency under British rule.
  • After completing his matriculation in 1869, he started working as a school teacher in a village.
  • A scholar of three languages namely Telugu, Sanskrit, and English.
  • He is most revered for his contribution to the reformation of Telugu society.
  • Wrote extensively on the emancipation of women, advocated widow remarriage, and denounced child marriages.
  • Set up schools for the education of girls and women.
  • In 1887, he started a Brahmo Mandir at Rajamundry.
  • In 1893, the government of India conferred the title ‘RaoBahadur’ on him
  • He passed away on 27th May 1919 aged 71.
[D] Maharshi Dhondu Keshav Karve:

  • Born on 18th April 1858 at Sheravali, India, Dhondu Keshav Karve, or Maharshi Karve he was popularly known as a social reformer in India.
  • Was a Professor, Activist, Writer, and Social Worker.
  • Noted for supporting the education of women and for organizing associations for the marriage of Hindu widows.
  • In 1893, he established the Widow Marriage Association.
  • He set an example by marrying a widow after his first wife had died in 1891.
  • Established an educational institution in 1896, Hindu Widows Home in Poona.
  • He started Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women’s University in 1916.
  • On his 100th birthday, he was conferred India’s highest honour the ‘Bharat Ratna’.
  • He died in Pune on November 9, 1962, aged 104.

Project [Textbook Page No. 39]

Collect information about the efforts for women’s education in Maharashtra with the help of the internet.

Solutions :
Students can use the following points as reference:
  1. Trace women’s education down the ages.
  2. Education in Maharashtra from 1818-1903.
  3. Pioneer of Women’s education in India-Savitribai Phule.
  4. Female literacy in Maharashtra today.
  5. Schemes for women by the Government of Maharashtra.

India : Social and Religious Reforms Questions And Answers | India : Social and Religious Reforms 12th

The contribution of the Indian social reformers who emerged from the first generation of Indians and who studied under the new educational system introduced by the British is very significant. The visionaries in the Indian society were aware that political freedom was not adequate without the internal transformation. It could happen through social and religious reforms. Hence, it is essential that we briefly review the social-religious reform movements. Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s efforts was the beginning point of these movements.


5.1 Call for Social and Religious Reforms The progress of Indian society was stunted because of superstitions, orthodox way of life, caste discriminations, false social notions, lack of curiosity and rationality that prevailed on large scale. The social reformers who were trained in the modern education system introduced by the British developed a different world view. They felt the need of creating a new Indian society which cherished the progressive values of ‘Freedom, Equality, Fraternity and Humanism’. Therefore, they began to work towards creating mass awareness on various social and religious issues.

5.2 Age of Reforms Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in Bengal. He translated Sanskrit Upanishads in Bengali. The experience of witnessing his brother’s wife immolating herself on her husband’s funeral pyre (she followed the custom of Sati), perturbed him very deeply. Roy published a letter about the evil practice of Sati. He was the first Indian to point out that none of the Indian religious texts mentioned the practice of Sati as a prescribed religious obligation.

 It is because of his efforts that a law was passed by the Governor General Lord William Bentinck, abolishing the practice of Sati, in 1829. He was also opposed to the practice of child marriage and segregation of women (Purdah system). He opened an English medium school. He also launched the first weekly periodical in Bengali. Later, he also launched another publication in Persian language. He also started a philosophical discussion circle, named ‘Atmiya Sabha’. This circle became a platform for searching

similarities value systems of different religions. In 1828, he founded ‘Brahmo Samaj’ and proclaimed that ‘God is one and there is no need to worship idols to propitiate him’. Raja Ram Mohan Roy spoke in support of the anti-colonial movements in the Spanish colonies in South America. He supported the liberal people in Spain who were against the monarchical rule. In 1830, he had gone to England to plead the case of the Mughal emperor.

 In recognition of this the Mughal emperor conferred the title of ‘Raja’ on him. He stayed in England for 2 years. Later, he went to France. In India, he unfolded Europe for the Indians and similarly, whenever in Europe, he unfolded India to Europeans. Roy, being trained in the British regime, laid the foundation of modernity in India through his writings and work. Organisations like ‘Manavdharm Sabha’, ‘Paramhamsa Sabha’ and ‘Dnyanprasar Sabha’ were inspired by his work.

5.3 Religious Reform Movements Prarthana Samaj : ‘Prarthana Samaj’ had its origin in the ‘Paramhamsa Sabha’. It was founded by Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar. The founding members of ‘Prarthana Samaj’ like Dr. Atmaram Pandurang, Justice M.G. Ranade, Dr. R.G. Bhandarkar opposed idol worship and emphasised on the principle of ‘One Supreme God’ (monotheism). They opened orphanages, schools for girls and night schools for workers. They focused on the importance of gender equality, wiping out caste discriminations and also on appreciating the value of mundane life.

Satyashodhak Samaj : In 1873, Mahatma Jotirao Phule founded ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ in Pune. It challanged intellectually and rationally unjust religious traditions. Mahatma Phule cracked a whip on the social customs and practices, which pushed the masses of Indian society into a miserable state. He showed a new path to the farmers, artisans, workers and various suppressed castes for their upliftment. The characteristics of the Satyashodhak Samaj included monotheism, rejection of the authority of Veda-Puranas, acceptance of rationality, opposition to dominance and intrusion of the priests and idol worship, pilgrimage, disbelief in miracles and opposition to the notion of a world after death. Mahatma Phule and Savitribai Phule took initiative in the movement of education for girls by starting a school for them. They emphasised on the fact that educating the girls is the only way to their emancipation. The work of educating girls was continued by Pandita Ramabai and Ramabai Ranade.

The social system in India was based on social inequality. Mahatma Phule worked for creating a social system based on equality. His work was continued by Gopalbaba Walangkar, who severely criticised untouchability in his book, ‘Vital Vidhwamsan’ (Destroying Defilement). Shivram Janba drew attention to the problems of the deprived women like Murali, Jogatini and Devdasi.

Arya Samaj : Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded ‘Arya Samaj’ in 1875. Arya Samaj regarded Vedas as holy books. Arya Samaj rejected discrimination based on caste difference and encouraged education of women, widow remarriage and inter-caste marriages.

Ramkrishna Mission : Swami Vivekanand established ‘Ramkrishna Mission’ in 1897. Ramkrishna mission focused more on serving needy people. They worked for people affected by famine, healthcare for the sick people, serving the weak, upholding the cause of education for women and spiritual betterment. It gave a message to the Indian youth to get up, to awaken and keep moving until the goal is achieved.

5.4 Contribution of Social Reformers Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan : He was born in 1817 in Delhi. He was fluent in Urdu, Persian, Arabic and English. He had edited ‘Ain-i-Akbari’, a book about Emperor Akbar’s administration, Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan

written by Abu’l Fazl. He established ‘Scientific Society’ for Muslims. Members of this society were scholars of History, Science and Political Economy. In 1869, he went to England. After returning from England he founded ‘Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College’ in 1875. Later it developed into ‘Aligarh Muslim University’. He started a periodical entitled, ‘Mohammadan Social Reformer’. He worked for the propagation of modern education, science and technology.

Tarabai Shinde : She was born in 1839. She wrote an essay comparing the situation of women and men. In this essay she wrote about women’s rights. She expressed her thought in a very upfront manner. She did not just stop at discussing about reforms like widow remarriage, women’s education, abolition of Sati but proceeded to demand gender equality. Considering the time frame of her essay, it was indeed, very brave step. She was the first Indian woman to challenge the patriarchal system. She opined that religious systems suppress women because religions are created by men. Mahatma Phule justified her thoughts by giving resolute answers to her critics.

Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde : He opened Marathi schools and schools for technical training in Paral, Deonar in Mumbai, under the umbrella of ‘Depressed Classes Mission’ that was established by him. He worked to create public awareness about the issues affecting the depressed classes, like entry in temples, (for example, 

protestations for the right of entry in the Parvati temple in Pune) Agricultural conference and joint electorate system of depressed classes.

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar : Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar had determined to work for creating a society based on the principles of ‘Freedom, Equality and Fraternity’. He began a movement for fighting the caste system and bringing equality. He gave a message from the platform of ‘Bahishkrut Hitkarini Sabha’, “Educate yourself, get united and fight”. This movement led to the ‘Satyagraha of Chavadar Tank’ at Mahad. He asserted that the public water bodies should be open to all. He burnt Manusmruti, the book that was the source of social inequality in India. In 1930, he launched a Satyagraha to open the ‘Kala Ram Temple’ in Nasik for all. Karmaveer Dadasaheb Gaikwad headed this Satyagraha. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar knew the importance of print media. For him it was the best instrument for creating public awareness and to build the movement for social equality. He began to publish his own newspapers, namely, ‘Mooknayak’, ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’, ‘Janata’ and ‘Samata’. He formed, ‘Independent Labour Party’ for the good future of the working class. Later he formed ‘Scheduled Caste Federation’ to continue the work of shaping a society based on equality. In 1956, along with his numerous followers, he got initiated to Buddhism. Among his contributions the most important is the drafting of the ‘Constitution of India’

Ramaswamy Naikar : He was born in ‘Erode’, a city in Tamilnadu in 1879. He Ramswamy Naikar Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar began his work in 1920 as a member of the Congress. He became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy and worked for propagating the use of ‘Swadeshi’ and for the right of temple entry to all. He participated in the ‘Vykom Satyagraha’ in Tranvancore, against untouchability. He started ‘Swabhiman Andolan’ in Tamilnadu. He fought against the varna system and child marriage. People began to address him as ‘Periyar’ (Great Soul) because of his magnanimous work. He was a great speaker and author. He took a radical position on the issues like women’s rights and family planning.

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay : Kamaladevi was an active volunteer of Congress. She convinced Mahatma Gandhi to let women participate in the salt satyagrha. She herself participated in the satyagraha. She worked for women’s rights throughout her life. She organised demonstrations to draw attention to the problems of workers and farmers. She emphasised on justice to female agricultural labourers. Similarly, she also insisted that women working in factories should have necessary facilities. She consistently followed up the issue of maternity leave to women. She was imprisoned for one year by the British for participating in the ‘Quit India’ movement. 

5.5 Contribution of the rulers of Princely States in India Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad : Maharaja Sayajirao of Baroda State had adopted progressive policies. He made provision of free schooling and free hostels for the students from the untouchabletribal class. He also encouraged women’s education and also opened a centre for physical training of women. He started various social programmes, such as, community feasts for all castes (‘sahabhojan’), grampanchayat in every village, literate grampanchayat members, library in every village, compulsory primary education, compulsory physical training for boys and girls, ban on child marriage, widow remarriage, etc. He also provided courses based on agro-industries for students from farmer families. He passed a resolution for assuring a share in the ancestral property to married as well as widowed women.

omen. Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj : The ruler of the princely state of Kolhapur, Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj supported Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s leadership, while leading the ‘Non-brahminical Movement’ in his state. He made a public declaration of reservations and passed a resolution for free and compulsory primary education. He also very strongly opposed the customs of ‘Rotibandi’ (restrictions on eating together), ‘Betibandi’ (restrictions on inter-caste marriage) and ‘Vyavasaybandi’ (restrictions on practicing occupations other than the ancestral occupation of one’s caste). He made a law for inter-caste marriage. People in his state were permitted to choose any occupation. Thus, all of these social reformers created a positive picture for the future of our country. It was necessary to build a society with firm intellectual and rational base for obtaining freedom from the British rule. In the next lesson we are going to learn about the freedom movement of the Indians.


You would like to know As far as social reforms in Maharashtra are concerned, the list of people, who devoted their lives for it, is quite extensive. However, it is essential to mention a few prominent names among them. The contribution of Karmveer Bhaurao Patil and Punjabrao Deshmukh, Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve, Godavari Parulekar, Tarabai Modak and Anutai Wagh in the field of education deserves a special mention. Sant Gadge Maharaj and Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj worked for creating social awareness through their kirtans and bhajans. In the field of social service the work of Dr. Shivajirao Patwardhan, Dr.Baba Amte and Dr. Rajanikant Arole is of great value. Dr. Baba Adhav started the movement of ‘Ek Gaon, Ek Panvatha’ (One Village, One Water Source). R.D. Karve was on the forefront to inculcate the value of rationality in people in our social life. Efforts of Dr. Narendra Dabholkar sowed the seeds of ‘Andhashraddha Nirmulan’ movement (movement for elimination of superstition). 

India : Social and Religious Reforms Questions And Answers | India : Social and Religious Reforms 12th

Balbharati Solutions for History 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1: Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
Chapter 2: European Colonialism
Chapter 3: India and European Colonialism
Chapter 4: Colonialism and the Marathas
Chapter 5: India: Social and Religious Reforms
Chapter 6: Indian Struggle against Colonialism
Chapter 7: Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
Chapter 8: World Wars and India
Chapter 9: World : Decolonisation
Chapter 10: Cold War
Chapter 11: India Transformed - Part 1
Chapter 12: India Transformed - Part 2

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