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India Transformed Part 2 Questions And Answers | India Transformed Part 2

India Transformed Part 2 Questions And Answers | India Transformed Part 2 

India Transformed Part 2 Questions And Answers | India Transformed Part 2

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question - 1. In 1995, the health department of the Indian government launched the campaign, dubbed as __________

[a] Measles-Rubella
[b] Pulse Polio
[c] B.C.G.
[d] Triple vaccine
Solutions :
[b] Pulse Polio

Question - 2. The first district in __________ to become completely literate was Ernakulum.

[a] Gujrat
[b] Kerala
[c] Karnataka
[d] Tamil Nadu
Solutions :
[b] Kerala


1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.

Question - 1.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
(a) National Human Rights CommissionProtection of Human Rights
(b) Centre for Science and EnvironmentStudy of Pollution in Delhi
(c) SEESCAPInstitute for conservation of turtles
(d) INTACHOrganisation creating awareness for conservation of heritage

2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question - 1. Commission established vide Human Right Protection Act –

Solutions :
National Human Rights Commission

Question - 2. The player who was awarded the highest title, ‘Bharat Ratna’ –

Solutions :
Mr. Sachin Tendulkar


3. Complete the following concept map.

Question - 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2 Q3
Solutions :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2 Q3.1


4. Write short notes.

Question - 1. Speed Post

Solutions :
  • The Indian postal department started the service of speed post in 1986 which changed the nature of post service.
  • This service was used by the majority of Indians, more than three crore letters and parcels were delivered from this service.
  • The customer will get the message of successful delivery of their items.
  • The postal department now offers courier services like passport delivery, business parcels, cash-on-delivery, logistics posts, and air freights.
  • The post office even offers a packaging service. Over one lakh and fifty thousand post offices are offering the services like paying bills, sending festive cards and other objects.
  • Since 2016, the postal department has started service of delivering Ganges water from Rishikesh and Gangotri at personal addresses.
  • Buying personalised postage stamps with personal photographs and special schemes for philatelists are also available at ‘Post Shops’ opened at 80 post offices.

Question - 2. Air Pollution

Solutions :
The entire world, nowadays, is facing the problem of air pollution which is mainly done by vehicles.
All most every state in India is facing the problem of air pollution.
The ‘Centre for Science and Environment’, studied and proved that the increasing number of automobiles and vehicles of poor maintenance are the causes of air pollution in Delhi.
The institution recommended the following suggestions to curb air pollution:
Use of CNG [Compressed Natural Gas] as fuel.
It was decided that vehicles without a ‘PUC’ certificate will not qualify for insurance and renewal of insurance.
In this way, we can curb air pollution and make our environment clean and pure.

Question - 3. Eradication of Polio.

Solutions :

The government of India launched a campaign for the eradication of polio from India.
The health department of the Indian government launched the campaign known as ‘Pulse Polio’ which was started with the joint sponsorship of‘World Health Organisation – WHO, Rotary International, UNICEF, and Indian Government.’
The objective of the campaign was not to leave a single child under the age of five years without administering the polio vaccine.
Awareness camps, home visits, and extensive advertising made this campaign successful.


5. Answer the following Question -s in detail.

Question - 1. Explain the sports policy of the Government of India.

Solutions :
  1. India is home to a diverse population playing and showing their talent in a variety of different sports. Every nation needs a well-knit sports policy.
  2. In 2001, the Government of India announced its sports policy. The main objective of this policy is:
  3. To take sports to all parts of India.
  4. To help the players to develop special skills.
  5. To build supportive and fundamental sports facilities.
  6. To help the National Sports Federation of India and associated institutions to search for sports talent.
  7. To initiate co-operation from industries, corporate and private institutions for the cause of sports.
  8. To create awareness of the importance of sports and interest in sports among people.
  9. In 2011, the Indian government announced a novel scheme for sports named ‘Come and Play’.
  10. Sports Authority of India gave permission to use five sports complexes in Delhi to local youths.
  11. They were also provided an opportunity to train under Sports Authority of India [SAI] coaches.
  12. The National Sports University was founded in Manipur in 2018.
  13. This university offers different courses from Bachelor and Masters to M.Phil. and Ph.D. Apart from this, sports universities also offer courses in sports, education, sports management, sports psychology, coaching, etc. Research in sports is also encouraged in the sports university.
  14. Khelo India.
  15. Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2

Question - 2. Which programmes and facilities are created by the Ministry of Tourism of the Indian government to attract tourists?

Solutions :
  1. India has a rich cultural heritage. Several tourists visit India each year to see its cultural heritage, monuments, etc. The tourism industry is a continuously growing industry which also gives foreign exchange to the country. The Indian Government has adopted different policies to attract tourists. They are as follows:

  2. The government provides different facilities to the tourists who visit India. The three ministries of home affairs, tourism, and foreign affairs together created the facility of e-visa which included e-business visas, e-medical visas, and e-visa.
  3. A facility of giving information to tourists on mobile in Hindi and 10 other foreign languages, for 24 hours throughout the week was started.
  4. To avail of this facility, tourists have to dial 1363. The information regarding cruise tours, health, and sports tourism, eco-friendly tourism, adventurous sports tourism, film festivals are given through this service.
  5. Hotels with amenities and premium quality accommodation including luxurious services are available to the tourists.
  6. The Institutes which offer training courses in ‘Hospitality and Hotel Management’ have been established in major cities of India.
  7. An advertisement campaign called ‘Atulya Bharat’ was designed to attract tourists.
  8. A travel show entitled ‘GONORTHEAST’ was released on the Discovery channel to boost the tourism of beautiful places in the northeastern states of India.
  9. The government took the help of electronic and digital media channels like Discovery, BBC, History is showcasing various programs introducing India’s historical and cultural heritage.
  10. Swadesh’ and ‘Prasad’ schemes were launched by the Ministry of Tourism of Government of India to encourage visits to 95 pilgrimage and spiritual centers in India.
  11. The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, and Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism and Hospitality [FAITH] organized Indian Tourism Mart – 2018. This was the first event based on the model of International Tourism Marts in other countries.


6. State your opinion.

Question - 1. Joint military practice sessions are beneficial for both participant countries.

Solutions :
  1. Such sessions are extremely helpful for both countries because of the technological exchange that happens on these occasions.
  2. It also helps the armies of both the countries to know, learn and practice new methods of resolving problems.
  3. The process of modernization of arms gives impetus to further research.
  4. Due to the development of science and technology, there is increasing scope for the exchange of the latest technology to fight terrorism, to augment our own competencies, and optimum use of modern technology for the end of terrorism.
  5. The Indian army carried out exercises with different countries e.g., exercise with Oman army at Bakloh, there were combined exercises of Mangolian army and Jammu and Kashmir Rifles.

Question - 2. All of us have the responsibility of taking care of our heritage places.

Solutions :
  1. India has an extraordinary and vast cultural heritage. It is in the form of ancient monuments, buildings, and other archaeological sites and remains.
  2. These monuments are the living witnesses of our golden historic era.
  3. It is our duty to preserve the monuments for the next generations. A little initiate from our side can save our heritage.
  4. The tourism industry generated foreign exchange on a large scale. Tourists come to India every year to see its cultural heritage. Therefore, it is our duty to preserve and protect our heritage.
  5. As a citizen of India, we should spread awareness among the people about the importance of the preservation of monuments. A little effort on our side can create desirable changes which will make past, present, and future generations of the country and the entire world proud of us.

Try to do this: [Textbook Page No. 100]

NRHM – Make a list of the benefits of the National Rural Health Mission to people.

Solutions :
  1. The Indian government launched National Rural Health Mission [NRHM] in April 2005 with an aim to strengthen the health systems in rural and urban areas. The list of the benefits of the NRHM are as follows:
  2. It aims to provide equitable, affordable, and quality healthcare services.
  3. It has strengthened the healthcare infrastructure.
  4. It has brought down the maternal mortality rate among poor pregnant women.
  5. The prevalence of tobacco use and the number of tobacco users have been reduced.
  6. The Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram entitles pregnant women to give birth in public health institutions at no expense.
  7. The government launched different schemes for community participation under NRHM. Rogi Kalyan Samiti is responsible for maintaining the facilities and ensuring the provision of better facilities for the patients in the hospital.
  8. Established the Global Knowledge Hub for smokeless tobacco. It also issued an advisory to ban Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.
  9. After the implementation of various initiates under NHRM many states have shown improved progress in healthcare facilities.

Try to do this: [Textbook Page No. 100]

Make a list of solutions to reduce the levels of air pollution.

Solutions :
  1. Air pollution is the biggest threat to the environment and to all living species. Following are some of the solutions to reduce the level of air pollution:
  2. Public Transport: Encourage greater use of public transport i.e. the use of railways, bus services or metros, etc. Instead of using private vehicles, people should encourage to use public transport.
  3. Use of CNG Vehicles: Citizens should also be encouraged to use CNG vehicles as it is a much cleaner fuel than petrol or diesel. New registration should be discouraged by increasing registration charges of vehicles.
  4. Use bicycles: Using bicycles is the best way to reduce air pollution. The government should mark out bicycle lanes in residential colonies as well as on roads.
  5. Plant and care for trees: Trees filter pollutants and absorb carbon dioxide. Trees release oxygen into the atmosphere. The practice of planting trees provides more benefits to the environment.
  6. Use less energy: Use energy-efficient appliances. Turn off electrical appliances when not in use. Get an energy audit done and follow the advice.
  7. Avoid the use of crackers: Avoid the use of crackers during festivals and weddings as it creates a lot of air pollution and is harmful to birds and animals including human beings.
  8. Reuse, Reduce and Recycle: The three ‘Rs’ are the best way to reduce air pollution.
  9. Avoid using chemical products: Avoid using chemical products like paint, perfumes, sprays, etc as they contain harmful products. Try to use products with less chemical content.
  10. Prevention of forest fires and burning of garbage: Don’t burn garbage or leaves because it releases harmful smoke in the air which decreases the quality of air.

Try to do this: [Textbook Page No. 102]

1990 was the ‘International Year of Literacy’. Make a list of similarly declared international years for special causes and campaigns launched on the occasion.
Solutions :
The following are the international years currently observed by the United Nations.
2024:

International Year of Camelids
2022:

International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture
2021:

International Year of Peace and Trust
International Year of Creative Economy for Sustainable Development
International Year of Fruits and Vegetables
International Year of Eliminations of Child Labour
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2

2020:

International Year of Planet Health
International Year of the Nurse and Midwife
2019:

International Year of Indigenous Languages
International Year of Moderation
International Year of Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
2017:

International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development.
2016:

International Year of Pulses
2015:

International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies
International Year of Soils
2014:

International Year of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
International Year of Small Island Developing States
International Year of Crystallography
International Year of Family Farming
2013:

International Year of Water cooperation
International Year of Quinoa
2012:

International Year of Cooperatives
International Year of Sustainable Energy for All
2011:

International Year of Forest
International Year of Chemistry
The International Year of African Descent
2010:

The International Year of Biodiversity
The International Year for the Rapprochement of cultures
The International Year of Youth
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2

2009:

The International Year of Astronomy
The International Year of Human Rights Learning
The International Year of Natural Fibres
The International Year of Reconciliation
2008:

The International Year of Languages
The International Year of Planet Earth
The International Year of the Potato
The International Year of Sanitation
2007-08:

International Polar Year
2006:

International Year of Deserts and Desertification
2005:

International Year of Physics
International Year of Sport and Physical Education
International Year of Microcredit
2004:

International Year of Rice
International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition
2003:

International Year of Freshwater
Year of Kyrgyz Statehood
2002:

International Year of Mountains
International Year of Eco-tourism
United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage
2001:

International Year of Volunteers
International Year of Mobilisation against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance
United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilisation
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2

2000:

International Year of Thanksgiving
International Year for the Culture of Peace
Find out and tell us [Textbook Page No. 106]

Make a list of employment opportunities generated by the tourism industry.
Solutions :
The travel and tourism industry in India is growing rapidly so many opportunities are available in the coming years in this field. Some of the opportunities that are available in the tourism industry are as follows:
[i] Hotels: Many job perspectives are available in the hotel industry. Some fields of hotel industries are

Manager
Operations
Housekeeping
Food and Beverage
Front office
Gardener
Security officer/personnel etc.

[ii] Airlines: One can take up the following job in airlines
  • Pilot
  • Ground staff [Traffic Assistant, Counter staff, Booking, and Reservation]
  • Flight Attendant

[iii] Tourism Department:
  • Tour guides
  • Tour planner
  • Information assistants
  • Reservation and counter staffs
  • Sales and Marketing
  • Interpreters
  • Translators
[iv] Transportation Industry:
  • This is an ever-growing industry where one can have many job opportunities. Job opportunities are available in all types of transportation i.e.
  • Railway service
  • Bus service
  • Cruise service or ferry service
  • Private transportation – Cars, Rickshaws, Horse riding, etc.

[v] The employment opportunities are also available in the management of adventure sports, theme parks, amusement parks, water sports, mountaineering, children’s fantasy land, etc.

[vi] The other job opportunities in this field include Destination Manager, Itinerary Planner, Travel Agent, Foreign Exchange, Counselor, etc.


Find out and tell us [Textbook Page No. 106]

Suggest ways and means to enhance the heritage and historical tourism in India.

Solutions :
  1. Heritage and historical tourism tend to attract many tourists. Different ways and means to enhance, this type of tourism are as follows:
  2. Build better roads and access points to the heritage sites, packaged train travel, proper bus connections should be provided to the tourists.
  3. Aggressive tourism and marketing strategies are also necessary whether it is broadcasting the ‘Incredible India’ campaign abroad, holding different seminars, or offering Indian locations with facilities to promote foreign film productions in the country are some of the strategies.
  4. The Government of India has already started making a lot of improvements in this area. We need to capitalize on India as a destination. The government should make a documentary based on the heritage of India. One can even design a promotional campaign to enhance historical tourism.
  5. The historical places always have a story to tell. They offer amazing aesthetics and attract people from all over the world. If tourism is accompanied by mind-blowing hotels, resorts, good public transportation facilities, and delectable cuisine then it becomes an added advantage to the tourist.

Project [Textbook Page No. 108] 

Make a list of various business opportunities available at tourist destinations.

Solutions :
Introduction: Tourism is a continuously growing industry. By the early 21st century, international tourism had become one of the world’s most important activities. Various business opportunities are available at the tourist destinations and they are as follows:

[i] Travel Agency: Everyone needs a platform where customers can come to and take advice about tour packages of different places which travel agency provides. The travel agency helps tourists in planning their travel for which they charge their commission.

[ii] Hotel: Hotel business is the best opportunity from which you can gain a high rate of return as well as expand your chain of hotels in the future.

[iii] Online Travel Business: In the modern era, the way of doing business is changing. Now everything is available online. With the change in technology, the way of doing business has also changed. One can start an online business portal where customers have easy access to everything online.


[iv] Photography: Tourists always want to save the memories of the places they visit and a photographer helps them to restore their memories through their art of photography. There is a huge demand for photographers.

[v] Vehicle Renting: Some tourists like to plan their tours according to their own wishes. They don’t want any unknown person to be a part of their travel for safety reasons. Such tourists search for a vehicle that they can get on rent and go in the direction that they want. To invest in this business is profitable.

[vi] Tour Guide: A Tourist guide is a person who guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural history of the particular place. This is a challenging field with an increase in tours and travels.

[vii] Executive Chef: The executive chef is in charge of a restaurant’s kitchen and is responsible for managing the kitchen staff, planning the menu, and making sure that food hygiene is maintained. This is a well suitable job for people who are passionate about cooking.

India Transformed Part 2 Questions And Answers | India Transformed Part 2 

12.1 Social Domain India’s transformation is reflected in the social domain also. The government is actively trying to reduce the social disparity and to bring all classes in the society in the mainstream of economic development. In this regard, the ‘Human Rights Protection Act - 1993’ is important. 

‘National Human Rights Commission’ was established under this act. Its objective is to protect fundamental human rights, like the right to life, equality, etc. and to see that nobody is deprived of these rights. According to this Act the Commission can act on the basis of a report of a case of deprivation of fundamental human rights, published in newspaper or other media (‘Sui Moto Cognisance’). 

A complaint can be lodged by a social activist or a social institute on behalf of the victim. In 2005, the ‘Domestic Violence Act’ was passed. This Act was formed to provide protection to women from domestic violence. The most important provision in this Act is the right of a woman on the house where she has been residing, even if she doesn’t own the house. 

According to 2011, census the sex ratio in India, is alarming. The ratio of girls is very low. In the age group of 0-6 years the number of girls is 914 against 1000 boys. This statistics was a warning of a grim social situation and several women organisations raised a voice expressing their concern. The State Government of Maharashtra banned sex/gender prediction tests of a fetus and launched a programme called ‘Lek Ladaki’. Gradually the social loathing for the birth of a girl is diminishing because of the growing awareness.

12.1.1 Health Polio eradication : The transformation of India was bound to reflect in the field of ‘Health’. In 1995, the health department of the Indian government launched the campaign, dubbed as ‘Pulse Polio’. It was started jointly under the sponsorship of  ‘World Health Organisation – WHO’, UNICEF, Rotary International and Government of India. This campaign was for the eradication of polio. The campaign was run with a determination not to leave a single child under the age of five years without administering polio vaccination. Various means were used to make the campaign absolutely successful, such as awareness camps, home visits and extensive advertising through various media.

AYUSH : The ‘Ministry of Health and Family Welfare’ of the Government of India opened a new department for developing alternate medicine like Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Homoeopathy etc. Since 2009, this department is known as ‘Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani Medicine, Siddha and Homoeopathy’ (AYUSH). It is working for the development of syllabi and education of these branches of medicine, advanced research, standardisation of medicine, etc.

12.1.2 Environment Most of the states in India are facing the problem of increasing air pollution. The pollution caused by automobiles is an issue of great worry. The ‘Centre for Science and Environment’ studied the problem of pollution in Delhi and made the public aware of it severity. It has been proved that the cause of pollution in Delhi is basically the increasing number of automobile, vehicles with poor maintenance running on the street that cause emission containing poisonous gases and carbon particles. The heritage monuments in Delhi are also getting affected because of the pollution. The institution recommended the use of


CNG – Compressed Natural Gas as fuel for vehicles to overcome the pollution problem. Based on this recommendation, the Supreme Court issued an order of using CNG for public transport vehicles, in 1998. Later, a policy of permitting only those vehicles as roadworthy, which passed the test of ‘Pollution Under control – PUC’ was adopted. It was decided that vehicles without ‘PUC’ certificate will not qualify for insurance and renewal of insurance. Several centres issuing PUC certificates were opened. Chemical effluents drained into rivers and streams is the major source of water pollution.

 Efforts of a number of environment activists have contributed significantly to environment conservation and preservation. Among them, Sundarlal Bahuguna (‘Chipko’ Movement), Medha Patkar (‘Narmada Bachao’ Movement) and Dr. Rajendra Singh (Water Conservation) are some prominent names. The pollution of water and food is increasing because of artificial and nonbiodegradable materials like plastic and pesticides. This is also causing degradation of the soil. It causes a spurt of various diseases in humans, animals and plants that creates a harmful situation for general health Three experiments in Maharashtra, in the context of conservation and preservation of environment are indeed worthy of mention


Rahibai Popere : On 8th March 2018, Rahibai Popere was felicitated by the President of India by ‘Nari Shakti Award’. This award was given to her for her work in ‘Kalasubai Parisar Biyanee Samvardhan 

Samiti’. She is popularly known as ‘Beejmata’ (Seed Mother). She has worked for preserving seeds of native cultivars for the future generations. Her grandson got ill because of the diet consisting of food made with hybrid varieties of food-grains and vegetables of lesser quality. She thought of native varieties of food-grains to overcome the problem. She decided to grow the foodgrains and vegetables of native variety to meet her family’s needs.

 She began to do it and store the seeds of those landraces (Deshi Van). Bitter gourd (karle), Spinach (palak), Amaranthus Tricolour (tandulja/lal math), Sweet beans (hyacinth beans/pavata), Bitter beans / twisted beans (kadu wal), Ghevada (kidney beans), Groundnut (bhuimoog), Barnyard millet (varai), varieties of rice - Dhavul Bhat, Kalbhat. Ambemohor, Black Gram (udid), etc. She did not confine her efforts only to her family; but, through micro banking groups (bachat gat) she spread it to the surrounding villages. 

The movement started by her grew well with the partnership of ‘Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation (BAIF)’. Rahibai preserves the seeds in earthen pots. Once filled she closes the pot by plastering its mouth by a mixture of soil and cow dung. This method saves the seeds from insects and ants. Before closing the pot the seeds are covered with a layer of ash and neem leaves. Now in her seed bank she has a collection of more than 50 landraces of food-grains and 30 landraces of vegetables. She is one of the three Indian women selected as ‘Women of the Year 2018’ by BBC, among 100 women from various countries.

associates work for the conservation of nature through an institute, called ‘Sahyadri Nisarg Mitra’. In 1999, Bhau Katdare read about the ‘White-breasted Sea Eagle’ as an endangered species. He began his work in Ratnagiri district to save and conserve this bird. He created public awareness about this bird by trekking the sea coast of the district. In this, he found out 62 nesting sites of the bird. While doing this, he and his associates detected some instances of smuggling of the nests of birds known as ‘Indian Swiftlets’ (Pakoli) at Bandra island, which is located near Vengurla Rocks, in the vicinity of the Nivati port in Sindhudurg district. The nests were smuggled out and sold in foreign countries. There was a need to save these birds and their nests. ‘Sahyadri Nisarg Mitra’ worked in that direction. As a result Indian Swiftlets were included in Schedule ‘I’ (a list of wildlife, offence against which is punishable) of the ‘Wildlife Protection Act - 1972’. 

This is a remarkable contribution of ‘Sahyadri Nisarga Mitra’. ‘Sahyadri Nisarg Mitra’ also worked for the protection of Olive Ridley turtles. The females of this species come to Velas beach (Ratnagiri district) for nesting. Bhau Katdare and his associates planned an operation for the protection of these nests. In the first year, they were successful in protecting 50 nests. 2734 baby turtles from those 50 nests, were successfully released back into the sea. This proved to be a start of an annual event, ‘Turtle Festival’. Hundreds of tourists come every year to watch the occasion of baby turtles returning to sea. To accommodate them facilities for ‘Home Stay’ were developed. The peasants were trained for the management of ‘Home Stay’. Thus, efforts for conservation of nature resulted into development of tourism as well. The news of this development was well appreciated in Maharashtra. Now, Bhau Katdare and his associates are working for the protection of the endangered ‘Pangolin’ (ant eater/Khavalya Manjar).

Premsagar Mestri : The number of vultures is rapidly decreasing in India. Vultures are the scavengers in the nature. Two species of vultures, ‘Long billed Vultures’ and ‘White back Vultures’ are observed in the region around Raigad. Premsagar Mestri and his associates are working for increasing their numbers and to make available safe food for them through ‘Society for Eco Endangered Species Conservation and Protection-SEESCAP’, a non-governmental organisation. Painkillers (a drug called diclophenac) given to animals has proved to be toxic for vultures. Besides, dearth of trees with adequate height, scarcity of food, have also caused the decrease in vulture population. People working for SEESCAP are gradually getting success in changing these circumstances.

12.1.3 Education 1990 was declared as the ‘International Year of Literacy’. The State Government resolved to make Kerala a state with 100% literacy, in the international year of literacy. Accordingly, Kerala became the first state in India to become a state with 100% literacy

The campaign of literacy in Kerala included training of reading, writing, mathematical skills, importance of hygiene and cleanliness, vaccination of children, cooperative agriculture and importance of saving money. During the campaign for literacy, some additional problems were observed. Many senior citizens who participated in the campaign had eyesight related problems, which were unattended before. 

Many of the unskilled labourers could not afford the medical eye examination and cost of spectacles. In order to help them, free medical camps for eye examination and distribution of spectacles were arranged. Then people could easily attend the literacy classes. This is an example of a problem solved with combined will power of the government and people. The first district in Kerala to become completely literate was Ernakulum. Announcement to this effect was made on 4th February 1990.

Education – with special reference to Maharashtra The transformation of India is true in the field of education as well. The ‘National Council of Educational Research and Training’, Delhi suggested some modifications in the school syllabi and the structure of school text books. The guidelines in the new syllabi were based on democratic principles, social justice, awareness of duties and responsibilities, gender equality, protection of environment, eradication of superstitions, population, education as also norms of individual behavior.

 The syllabi were also oriented toward increasing the awareness of national unity in diversity. Training programmes for teachers are arranged all over Maharashtra for intensifying the efforts to fulfill the objectives of the new syllabi. It helped to bring awareness regarding the state level training and school text books, comparable to the awareness created at the time of ‘National Literacy Mission’. 

In 1990, the report of ‘Acharya Ram Murti Committee’ was received by the Government of India. The committee examined the National Educational Policy (NEP). The committee in its report emphasised on universalisation of education, education for women and backward classes and educational democracy The committee recommended to include education in fundamental rights and to raise the government funds allotted to education. Beside it, the matter of the weight of a schoolbag that a child has to carry, was also carefully considered and directives in this aspect were laid out. The practice of interviewing children before school admission was banned. 

In the new millennium, the Government under ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ set the following objectives. To enrol every children in school to raise the standard of education; to eliminate the gender discrimination in education, to achieve 100 % attendance in schools by 2010. Central Schools, with uniform syllabi were created throughout the country so that the wards of Central Government’s and Armed Forces employees may not have to suffer from obstructions in their education because of the frequent transfers of their parents. The Central Schools focus on sports and extra-curricular activities along with the academic syllabi. The programmes like ‘Ratrashala’ (Night Schools), ‘Sakharshala’ (Schools for the seasonal workers harvesting sugarcane) deserve a special mention here. 

The first night school in Maharastra was started by Mahatma Jotirao Phule in the 19th century. A number of night schools are run in Maharashtra, inspired by Mahatma Phule’s work. This programme is specially meant to benefit the students who work in daytime. In the season of sugarcane harvesting, many labourers migrate temporarily to the sites of various sugar factories. To facilitate the education of their children special schools, known as ‘Sakharshala’ were started in the vicinity of sugar factories. The State administration is taking help of voluntary organisations to increase literacy rate. This has helped in achieving 100% literacy in the districts of Sindhudurg and Wardha. It provided an impetus to adult education. The government provided books to school children for supplementary reading.

Primary Education In 1994, District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was started aiming at providing access to primary education to all. This programme was implemented in seven states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Haryana and Assam. This programme was aimed at achieving hundred percent registration and attendance of children in primary schools and bringing down the number of drop-outs. This programme was financially supported by the World Bank.

Mid Day Meal (Shaley Poshan Ahar) : This programme was implemented from 15th August 1995, to provide mid day meals to children in primary schools. Wherever, facilities to cook the food in school was not available, food-grains were distributed to each child. 

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan – SSA : “Let’s all learn, Let’s all progress”  was the motto of this programme. With this motto, the programme was launched in 2001. The right of free education was granted to children in the age group of 6-14 vide the ‘86th Amendment to the Constitution of India’. The main objective of ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ was to eliminate the disproportion in the access to primary education.

 Earlier programmes like ‘Khadu-Phala Yojana’, ‘Mid Day Meal’ were combined with this programme to make it successful. This programme gave special attention to the education of girls and children with special needs (Diyang). To achieve universalisation of education in India, ‘EDUSAT’ (GSAT-3)’, a satellite was launched in 2004. For the purpose of reaching out to children all over the country six communication zones and accordingly six channels were created. This programme facilitated distance education in regional language in all parts of the country.

12.2 Sports There were times, when the Indian hockey team used to return home victorious from international matches; Indian wrestlers like Khashaba Jadhav earned fame in international wrestling. In the course of globalisation some new sports became popular and many sportspersons emerged from various parts of the country. With globalisation, one thing had become very clear that sportspersons with extraordinary skills will only rise in their career.

 Present scenario of the sports world has an unmistakable message that yesteryears of success do not guarantee a success today or tomorrow. In other words, a champion in the past may lose his position any time, if he does not keep up the hard work. It is essential for sportspersons in all fields to prove themselves every time they play. New records have been made every day to break the old ones. The formats and the rules of the games are being modified time and again. 

Let’s elaborate this with the example of the game of cricket. In the olden days, a cricket match used to run for five days. Then one-day matches were introduced and then the cricket matches were limited only to 20 overs. Earlier, a wrestling match was not concluded till one of the wrestlers was pinned down (chitpat karane) completely. However, now a wrestling match gets concluded on the basis of points scored by the wrestlers. Today there are many types of sports, such as, Kabaddi, Hockey, Cricket, Swimming, Badminton, Weightlifting, Shooting, Chess, Motor sports, Sky Diving, Boxing, Archery, Wrestling, Football (Soccer), Tennis, Table Tennis (Ping-pong), 

Billiards and Snooker, Mallakhamb, Body building, and so on. Media and news channels have special slots for these games. There are a number of sports journals published in India. Some television channels are devoted to sports. The audience of sport channels, advertisements shown on these channels, time slots and expenses of these advertisements are vital factors, which have shaped an independent sphere of marketing. There are independent clubs/associations of each sport established in India. These associations are investing on large scale in sportspersons on individual merit.

 A football player may be adopted professionally by a football club. Then the club would take care of the player including his training. He/she has to sign a professional contract with the club. The player’s name gets associated with the club. The IPL matches of cricket, the World Cup matches of one day cricket and 20-20 cricket or the matches organisd by the Pro Kabaddi League in India, presently known as ‘Vivo Kabaddi League’ are the examples of professionlisation of the sports world. The professionally played matches have gained worldwide audience. 

That has resulted in the increase of the honourarium of the players. The government is also taking a note of sportspersons for their performance. Sportspersons, who perform extraordinarily well are honoured with various awards. Sachin Tendulkar was awarded with the highest award of ‘Bharat Ratna’ by the government. He was nominated as ‘Member of Rajyasabha’ (Khasdar). The sportspersons are receiving more popular support and respect. Sports are more and more perceived as prospective professional careers for the youth. Sport has become an inseparable part of school and college education. National Sports Policy : The participation of sportspersons in international sports tournaments, increasing use of science and modern technology in the field of sports is reflected in the sports policy of every nation. Government of India announced its sports policy in 2001. 

The main objectives of this policy include, to take sports to all parts of India, to help the players to develop special skills, to build supportive and fundamental sports facilities, to help National Sports Federation of India and associated institutions and search for sports talent, to initiate cooperation from industries, corporate and private institutions for the cause of sports, to create awareness of the importance of sports and interest in sports, among people. In 2011, Government of India announced a scheme named as ‘Come and Play’.

 Through this scheme, five sports complexes in Delhi under ‘Sports Authority of India (SAI)’ were made available to local youth. They were also provided with an opportunity to train under SAI coaches. The next step of the efforts of developing sports was the founding of National Sports University, at Manipur in 2018. The courses include Bachelor and Master’s, M. Phil and Ph.D. courses in sports education, sports management, sports psychology, coaching etc.

 Research in sports is also encouraged. Khelo India : The Indian government launched a new scheme named, ‘Khelo India’ by combining some old schemes and some new objectives. The scheme was launched with the objective of creating a larger popular platform and to establish excellence in sports. The scheme has 12 basic aspects. Two major aspects among them are to create interest about sports 

among students from early days in school and to increase girls’ participation in sports. The ‘National Sports Development Fund’ was established for the development of sports. A donation to this fund is eligible for 100% exemption from income tax. The ‘Rajiv Gandhi Khelratna’ award was announced with an intention of encouraging players. Apart from this, there are other awards like ‘Arjun Award’, ‘Dhyanchand Lifetime Achievement Award’, ‘Dronacharya Award’, ‘Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Trophy’ and ‘National Sports Encouragement Award’. 

The sportspersons, who win gold medal in Olympic games are awarded Rs.75,00,000 each. The teams and sportsperson, who win gold, silver and bronze medals in various competitions such as Para Olympic, Asiad, Commonwealth, World Cup, Asian Championship, International University Tournaments, International tournaments for the disabled, Cricket tournaments for visually impaired, etc., are given good amount of rewards and jobs. Besides, there is provision of pension for the retired sportspersons. Since 2018, a winner of the Olympics is granted a pension of Rs.20,000 per month and a winner of the Asian games is granted Rs.12,000 per month. Thus, the Government of India is opening many avenues for making the youth aware of sports as life career. Students can avail of many opportunities in this field.

12.3 Cultural Heritage and Tourism Tourism industry is a continuously developing field. This industry earns the country foreign exchange on a large scale. The number of tourists visiting India and Find out and tell us. • Make a list of employment opportunities generated by the tourism industry. • Suggest ways and means to enhance heritage and historical tourism in India. the revenue earned through them is increasing every year. 

Government is trying to create various facilities for the convenience of tourists visiting India from other countries. The three ministries of Home Affairs, Tourism and Foreign Affairs together created the facility of e-visa for them, which included e-business visa, e-medical visa and e-visa. A service giving information on mobile to the tourists not only in Hindi and English but also in ten other foreign languages for 24 hours throughout the week was started. These languages include Arabic, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Russian and Spanish. This information is made available by the Ministry of Tourism. For this facility the tourists have to dial 1363. 

The information covers various topics like cruise tours, adventurous sports tourism, health tourism, facilities for sports like golf and polo, eco-friendly tourism, film festivals and so on. Institutes for systematic training of soft skills, such as proper manners of receiving and helping tourists, communicating with them have been opened. Hotels with amenities and accommodation of premium quality are available to tourists. Institutes offering training courses in ‘Hospitality and Hotel Management’ have been established in many cities in the country. ‘Atulya Bharat’, an advertisement campaign designed to boost tourism, was 

INTACH – Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage : This institute was established in Delhi, in 1984. The head office of INTACH is in Delhi. Today INTACH is well known for its work. It is working in the field of heritage conservation and creating awareness about it. It has more than 200 branches in various parts of the nation. In the last 35 years INTACH has worked for tangible heritage in the form of natural heritage and cultural heritage as well as intangible heritage. 

INTACH works through its various departments such as, architectural heritage, natural heritage, material heritage, intangible cultural heritage, heritage education and communication services, sculpture section, ‘INTACH Heritage Academy’, heritage tourism, listing cell, library, archives and documentation. INTACH has done notable work in Maharashtra too. For further reference visit : www. intach.org 

carried out extensively. To boost tourism to places of unique nature and culture in the northeastern states of India, the travel show entitled ‘GONORTHEAST’ was released on the Discovery channel. Through the ‘Swadesh Darshan’ programme 13 types of pilgrimage tours have been launched. It includes tours to Himalayas, coastal regions, Buddhist centres, etc. The information of several uniquely featured tourist places in India, is being publicised through electronic and digital media. Channels like ‘BBC’, ‘Discovery’, ‘History’ are running programmes introducing India’s historical and cultural 

heritage to the world. It will help to increase the number of tourists coming to India from countries like America, France, Japan, etc. ‘Swadesh Darshan’ or ‘Prasad’ scheme launched by the Ministry of Tourism of the Indian government has chalked out tours to pilgrim centres and spiritual centres in India. There are 95 such places, which are included in this scheme. 

Trimbakeshwar in Maharashtra is one among them. The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism and Hospitality (FAITH) organised Indian Tourism Mart- 2018. It was the first event of its kind organised on the model of international Tourism Marts in other countries. In this lesson we have reviewed the transformation in various fields in our country, such as social matters, education, health, environment, sports and tourism. We studied some aspects of transforming India. 

India Transformed Part 2 Questions And Answers | India Transformed Part 2 

Balbharati Solutions for History 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1: Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
Chapter 2: European Colonialism
Chapter 3: India and European Colonialism
Chapter 4: Colonialism and the Marathas
Chapter 5: India: Social and Religious Reforms
Chapter 6: Indian Struggle against Colonialism
Chapter 7: Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
Chapter 8: World Wars and India
Chapter 9: World : Decolonisation
Chapter 10: Cold War
Chapter 11: India Transformed - Part 1
Chapter 12: India Transformed - Part 2

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