Human Settlements and Land Use | HSC Human settlement Class 12 Exercise

Human Settlements and Land Use | HSC Human settlement Class 12 Exercise

Human Settlements and Land Use | HSC Human settlement Class 12 Exercise

1. Identify the correct correlation.

A : Assertion R : Reasoning

Q: 1. A - Settlements can be of various types.

R - Various physical factors affect the growth of settlements.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Q: 2. A - When cities grow, their functions also grow.

R - Cities can have only one function.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
[a] Only A is correct.

2. Give geographical reasons.

Q: 1. Not all rural settlements change into urban settlements.

  1. The area between rural and urban is called rural-urban fringe.
  2. Villages are beyond the rural-urban fringe and cities have different land use pattern.
  3. In villages, land is mainly used for agriculture and related activities such as permanent pasture, grazing land, miscellaneous tree crops and groves, fallow land etc.
  4. In city areas land is mainly used for industries, residential purpose, recreation, transportation etc.
  5. Since the villages are far away from the city, they maintain their distinct identity and do not change into urban settlement.

Q: 2. In rural settlements, land use is related to agriculture.

  1. Generally, the land in rural areas is used for agriculture and related activities.
  2. The classification of the land use in rural areas is done according to the Land Records Department.
  3. As per Land Records Department, the land in rural areas is mainly used for activities related to agriculture, such as some land is under permanent pastures and grazing lands or some under tree crops or culturable waste-land or fallow land etc.
  4. Thus, all the above types of land use around the rural settlements are related to mainly agriculture.

Q: 3. Rural-urban fringe have the characteristics of both urban and rural settlements.

  1. The area between urban and rural areas is called rural-urban fringe.
  2. It has the characteristics of both urban as well as rural areas, since it is a transition zone between the two.
  3. Thus, in rural-urban fringe there is a mixture of urban-rural land use.
  4. In some rural areas apart from the land use for agriculture, some agricultural land has been converted into residential and industrial uses.
  5. The villages in rural fringe are partly affected by urbanization.
  6. Thus, rural-urban fringe has the characteristics of both urban and rural settlements.

Q: 4. Growth of urban areas is linked to land use.

  1. Land use in urban areas is different from land use in rural areas.
  2. In rural areas the land use is closely related to agricultural activities like cultivation of different crops, plantation of trees, permanent pastures, grazing land, cultivation of tree crops, fallow land etc.
  3. On the other hand, land use in urban areas is varied and closely related to housing and economic activities.
  4. As the population of the urban area increases, more and more non-agricultural activities develop in urban areas.
  5. Growth of urban areas depends upon area under construction, industries, different types of institutions such as school, college, insurance companies, bank etc.
  6. Recreational activities, transportation are the other urban land uses.
  7. Thus, growth of urban areas is linked with land use.
  8. Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

3. Write short notes on.

Q: 1. Interrelationship between urban and rural settlement.

  1. Settlements can be divided into urban and rural on the basis of their functions.
  2. Rural settlements are smaller than urban settlements.
  3. In rural areas agriculture and allied agricultural activities like livestock rearing, fishing, lumbering etc., are developed.
  4. In urban areas, industries, construction and economic activities like trade, transport and communication, banking and insurance are the important activities.
  5. The development industries need various raw material and services which are supplied by rural areas.
  6. For example, cotton grown in rural areas is supplied to cotton textile industries in urban areas. Everyday many rural people commute to urban areas to work in different activities.
  7. Thus, there is good interrelationship between urban and rural areas since they depend on each other.

Q: 2. Problems of urban settlements.

  1. Most of the urban areas have very large size of population and density of population is also very high.
  2. When cities increase in size, many changes occur. These changes are related to land use and structure of the city.
  3. The large size of population and high density create number of socio-economic, cultural, infrastructural, administrative and environmental problems.
  4. The air, water and noise pollution, development of slums, traffic jam, overcrowding in trains and buses, waste disposal etc., are some of the serious problems in most of the urban settlements.

Q: 3. Suburbs

  1. In the outer part of the urban areas there are small towns or small cities, they are known as suburbs.
  2. When big cities become overcrowded and overpopulated, the further development starts outside city area and thus suburbs develop.
  3. For example, Dombivali, Kalyan, Ambarnath etc., are the suburbs of Mumbai.
  4. Suburbs generally consists of residential housing and shops of low order, which act as central place for the local community.
  5. Often, suburbs are the most recent growth of an urban area and their end marks the urban fringe.
  6. With increase in population there is growth of suburb, the growth of suburbs may result in urban sprawl.

Q: 4. Mixed land use.

  1. Mixed land use is observed in some of the urban areas.
  2. It is an area where different types of land use exist together.
  3. In some cities residential, industrial, commercial, administrative functions are found in an integrated manner.
  4. In many cities in developing countries one can find schools, clinics, houses, business shops at one place itself.
  5. Generally mixed land use is found in cities which are growing very fast, because land in the city is not sufficient to reserve certain areas for certain land use, therefore there is mixed land use.

4. Answer the following Q:s in detail.

Q: 1. Explain the characteristics of rural settlement.

  1. On the basis of functions, settlements can be divided into two types - rural and urban.
  2. Agriculture and allied agricultural activities like fishing, livestock rearing, lumbering etc., are most economic activities in rural areas.
  3. The classification of land use in rural areas is done according to Land Records Department.
  4. As per Land Records Department the land in rural areas is mainly used for activities related to agriculture, such as some land is under agriculture, some under permanent pastures and grazing lands or some under tree crops or culturable waste-land or fallow land etc.
  5. Most of rural settlements are semi-clustered or fragmented and small in size.
  6. Primary activities like agriculture, lumbering, fishing, livestock rearing is more developed in rural settlements.
  7. In rural areas, sometimes agricultural areas are converted into residential or industrial areas.
  8. Many people in rural areas daily commute to city areas for work, thus rural and urban areas are connected with each other.
  9. There is an area between rural and urban area which is called rural-urban fringe, rural settlements are beyond the rural-urban fringe.

Q: 2. What factors are responsible for development of various patterns in settlement? Give examples.

1. Patterns of settlements are affected by various physical factors like relief, soils, climate, availability of water supply etc.
2. Physical factors influence the type and spacing of settlements, which results into various patterns of settlements.
3. Type of soil and quality of soil are two important factors which affect rural settlements.
4. Fertile plains and valleys have thick, rich and fertile alluvial soil, which supports agriculture, so nucleated settlements develop in these areas. For example, most of the villages in Ganga plains have nucleated settlements.
5. Settlements develop as per the relief of that area. For example, Foothill settlements develop at the foot of mountain, hilltop settlements develop at the top of the hill. For example, hilltop settlement at Shimla or Manali.
6. In the areas of mountainous or hilly relief, due to inaccessibility, there are dispersed or isolated settlements. For example, dispersed or isolated settlements in Himalaya mountains.
7. Sometimes settlements develop along the coastline, canal, river, road, or railway line. They are in straight line; they are called linear settlements. For example, settlements along Konkan coastline and settlements along Mumbai-Pune road.
8. Climate also affects development of settlements. Areas of extreme climate are avoided by people. Therefore, such areas have dispersed settlements.
9. For example, due to extreme hot climate there are dispersed settlements in Rajasthan and due to extreme cold climate, there are isolated settlements in the polar regions.
10. Water is essential for human development. Therefore, many settlements develop around lakes or natural tanks, they are circular settlements.
11. Sometimes settlements develop at the confluence of two rivers, the settlements grow in all three sides, they are triangular settlements. For example, Karad town is on the confluence of Krishna and Koyna river.
12. Sometimes settlements grow around the mines, or any central object. This centre point provides source of livelihood to the people. Thus, radial pattern of settlement develops. For example, radial settlements around coal mines in the State of Bihar.

5. Differentiate between.

Q: 1. Land Use and Land Cover

Land UseLand Cover
(i) Land use describes the use of land by people for different activities, such as recreation, housing, agriculture, educational institutes etc.(i) Land cover describes the physical surface covering the land such as forest rock, ice, sand, water etc.
(ii) For example, in any city, people may use some land for housing, some for recreation, some for sports ground etc.(ii) For example, in any area land may be covered by natural factors such as vegetation, river, sand dune, snow covered mountain etc.
(iii) Land use may change from place to place depending upon type of land and need for the people.(iii) Land cover is natural factor it hardly changes unless man purposefully makes changes in it.
(iv) Land use cannot be studied by the satellite imagery alone.(iv) Land cover can be studied by satellite imagery.

Q: 2. Barren and Non-agricultural Land
Barren LandNon-agricultural Land
(i) The land which is not used for any human activity is called barren land. In other words, it is wasteland.(i) The land which is used by man for various human activities except agricultural activity, is called as non-agricultural land.
(ii) For example, hilly or mountainous land, desert land, ravines, swampy and marshy land etc.(ii) For example, land used for housing, industries, construction of roads, railways etc.
(iii) Generally barren land cannot be used for agriculture or other activities with available technology.(iii) Due to the development of secondary or tertiary activities there is increase in the used of non-agricultural land.

Q: 3.Radial pattern and Circular Pattern
Radial PatternCircular Pattern
(i) In radial pattern settlements grow around certain object.(i) In circular pattern settlements grow around water body.
(ii) They develop near temple or a centre of commercial activity.(ii) They develop near lake or natural tank.
(iii) For example, settlements near Vindhyachal in Uttar Pradesh.(iii) For example, settlements around Nainital lake in Uttarakhand.

Q: 4.Nucleated and Dispersed Settlement
Nucleated SettlementDispersed Settlement
(i) Settlement where buildings or houses are grouped or clustered around a central point or nucleus is known as nucleated settlements.(i) Settlement where buildings or houses are scattered or dispersed, is known as dispersed settlement.
(ii) Houses or buildings are very close to each other. There may be common wall between two houses.(ii) Houses or buildings are far from each other. One house may be at a distance of half a kilometre from the other.
(iii) Geographical factors are favourable such as spring or fertile river valley.(iii) Geographical factors are not favourable such as extreme climate, barren land etc.
(iv) For example, settlements in river valleys.(vi) For example, settlements in the desert of Rajasthan.

6. Draw a neat and labelled diagram

[1] Linear settlement
[2] Radial settlement
[3] Compact settlement
[4] Dispersed settlement
Human Settlements and Land Use | HSC Human settlement Class 12 Exercise

7. Write a note in your own words about how land used in Lonar city has evolved. Refer the map on textbook page no. 30.

Human Settlements and Land Use | HSC Human settlement Class 12 Exercise

  1. Two maps of Lonar city are given. One map is of the year 2005-06 and another is of 2015-16.
  2. These two maps show the changes in land use that have taken place in the span of 10 years.
  3. The following changes have been registered.
  4. There is no change in the size of Lonar lake.
  5. The area occupied by Lonar city has increased substantially.
  6. Forest area around the lake has increased.
  7. An area under waste land/ scrubs have increased.
  8. Around the temple in the southeast, on the waste scrub land a new rural hospital, government hostel, government ITI, Tahsil office etc., has been developed. This newly developed area has been named as Krishna Nagar, which is not in 2005-06 map.
  9. To the north-east of the Lonar city two more building have been constructed. One is central public school and another is civil and criminal court.
  10. To the south of the temple in the heart of Lonar city built up residential area is spreading over built up residential sparse.
  11. Overall built up residential sparse is increasing in all directions around Lonar lake and south-eat of the Lonar city and thus there is encroachment over agricultural land.

8. Read the given passage and answer the following 

Different types of human settlements include hamlets, villages, small towns, large towns, isolated places, cities and conurbations. In some systems, types of human settlements are broken up into urban, suburban and rural; 
for example, the U.S. Census Bureau divides settlements into urban or rural categories based on precise definitions. Small settlements, such as hamlets and villages, have low populations and restricted access to services, larger types of settlements, such as cities, have higher populations, higher densities and greater access to services.
For example, a village may have only one or two general stores, while a large metropolis may have many specialized stores and chain stores. These differences are known as low-order service settlements and high-order service settlements. Larger settlements also have a sphere of influence affecting surrounding settlements. Settlements may also be divided by the site chosen, such as sites selected based on resources, trading points, defensive sites, shelter and relationship to water resources. 
The functions of human settlements also differ, as settlements may be established as ports, market towns and resorts. Types of rural settlements may also be classified by function, such as proximity to farming, fishing and mining. Settlements that focus on one economic activity are called single functional settlements. Human settlements may be permanent or temporary. 
For example, a refugee camp is a temporary settlement, while a city is a permanent settlement.

Q: 1.Which human settlements are mentioned in the passage above?

Hamlets, villages, small towns, large towns, isolated places, cities and conurbations are the types of settlements mentioned in the passage.

Q: 2.On what basis are urban and rural areas classified?

Settlement are classified on the basis of the size of population, density, access to higher order and lower order services, site chosen, functions, permanent or temporary etc.

Q: 3.What are the functions carried out in rural settlement?

Functions carried out in rural settlements are farming, fishing, mining, one or two general stores, etc.

Q: 4. Explain the difference between low-order services and higher order service settlements.

  1. The hamlets and villages have low population and restricted access to lower order services.
  2. For example, a village may have only one or two general stores. They are called low order settlements.
  3. Large metropolitan cities have higher population, higher density and greater services of higher order.
  4. For example, large metropolitans may have chain stores, malls, departmental stores, super markets etc. They are called higher order settlements.

human settlement class 12 notes

Geographical explanation 

Man being a social animal, likes to live in groups. Further, social bonding and social needs are developed. Due to the social needs, many people come together at a particular place and construct houses in a particular way, which is known as settlement. Human habitat is in the form of settlements. This may range from one house to a city. It shows that a group of people are using some territory to build houses as well as for their economic support. 

Man stays here, lives and carries out economic activities. Physical, cultural and economic factors affect the human settlements. Settlements are developed due to the co-relation between man and environment. Physical Factors like relief, altitude, soils, climate, drainage, groundwater level, 

etc. influence the type and spacing of settlements. For example, in dry regions, water is a crucial factor and therefore, houses are situated along the water source. Sometimes, social factors can also lead to fragmentation of settlements. In the past, areas were conquered or attacked frequently by outsiders. For a long time, therefore, security concerns favoured the evolution of nucleated settlements. 

Types of Settlement : 

 Settlements vary in size and type. They  range from a hamlet to metropolitan cities. With size, the economic character and social structure of settlements change and so do its ecology and technology. Settlements could be small and sparsely spaced; they may also be large and closely spaced. On the basis of spacing between the houses, settlements can be divided into the following four types :
 1) Compact or clustered or nucleated settlement.
 2) Semi-clustered or fragmented settlement. 
 3) Dispersed settlement. 
4) Isolated settlement

Looking at the cities above, we realise that cities do not carry out only one function. They generally carry out more than one function as they grow. One of these functions may be a major one. As towns become cities and cities You must have observed that the land around you is put to different uses. 

Some land is occupied by rivers, some may have trees and on some parts roads and buildings have been built. Different types of lands are suited to different uses. Human beings, thus, use land as a resource for economic activities, production, as well as residence and recreation

 Land Use Classification : You know that the land use in rural areas is different from that in urban areas. Generally, in rural areas, land use revolves around agriculture. In urban areas, it revolves around residential and other economic activities . The classification of land use in rural areas is done according to the Land Record Department. It is as follows :

1) Forests : The land under forest. 
 2) Non-agricultural Uses : Land under settlements (rural and urban), infrastructure (roads, canals, etc.), industries, shops, etc. are included in this category. An expansion in the secondary and tertiary activities would lead to an increase in this category of land-use.
3) Barren and Wastelands : The land which may be classified as a wasteland such as barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc. normally cannot be brought under cultivation with the available technology. 

4) Area under Permanent Pastures and Grazing Lands : Most of this type land is owned by the village ‘Panchayat’ or the Government. Only a small proportion  of this land is privately owned. The land owned by the village Panchayat comes under ‘Common Property Resources.’ 

5) Area under Miscellaneous Tree Crops and Groves (Not included in Net sown Area) : The land under orchards and fruit trees are included in this category. Much of this land is privately owned. 

6) Culturable Waste-Land : Any land which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is included in this category. It can be brought under cultivation after improving it through reclamation practices. 

 7) Current Fallow : This is the land which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year. Fallowing is a cultural practice adopted for giving the land rest. The land recoups the lost fertility through natural processes.
 8) Fallow other than Current Fallow : This is also a cultivable land which is left uncultivated for more than a year but less than five years. If the land is left uncultivated for more than five years, it would be categorised as culturable wasteland.
9) Net Area Sown : The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area

Land use in urban areas : 

1) Residential Areas : Any of those lands which man uses for his dwelling. He builds up (land cover) and carries out construction. 

2) Industrial Areas : The land, where any of the manufacturing activity exists (land cover), where people work for their livelihood. (land use.) 

3) Institutional Areas : The space over which the educational centres, universities, insurance offices, cantonments and similar to these activities exist and are used for the activities associated with all these land uses.

4) Recreational Areas : The place (land cover) where people visit to seek entertainment (land use) like parks, playgrounds, open or close theatres, etc. 

5) Transportation : The space (land cover) used for moving around by man. It includes airports, railway stations, roads, railways, harbours, etc. 

 6) Commercial Areas : These are business centres where selling of finished products is carried out for day-to-day usage in urban areas. These areas are intermixed with residential areas. At few places, commercial areas can aggregate to form definite clusters, especially at the core i.e. CBD (Central Business District).

 7) Plot Layouts : These are vacant lands mostly developed for construction of buildings. These are usually located on the periphery of the urban areas. These lands encroach the agricultural land due to the pressure of the increasing population. 

8) Mixed Land Use : It is an area where various types of land uses exist together. These may include residential, commercial and industrial land use in an integrated manner. In such areas, one can find houses, businesses, shops, schools, clinics and open spaces at one place itself

Human Settlements and Land Use | HSC Human settlement Class 12 Exercise

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