# Population Part 2 Exercise 12th | Geography Class 12 Chapter 2 question answer

## 1. Identify the correct co-relation

### Q:1. A - Increase in the dependency ratio will affect the economy.

R - Medical costs are high when there are more elderly in the population.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
SOLUTION:
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

### Q:2. A - In population pyramid, a broad base indicates high number of children in a country.

R - Broad apex is an indicator of high number of elderly people in a country.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
SOLUTION:
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

## 2. Write short notes on.

### Q:1. Population growth and migration.

SOLUTION:
1. When people move from one place to another place, or one city to other city or one country to another country it is called migration.
2. The place from where people go out is called donor region.
3. The place where people migrate is called recipient region,
4. Due to migration there are changes in total population in both the regions.
5. From donor region people move outside so donor area population will decrease. Generally, youngsters migrate in large number, so donor region will have less young age population, it will affect fertility rate and there will be slow growth of population.
6. In recipient region migrants will be added to the total population of that region. Thus, increasing the population of the region.
7. In recipient region more young age population will be added, so fertility rate will increase, and there will be more population growth.

### Q:2. Population pyramid and sex ratio.

SOLUTION:
1. The ratio between the number of male and female in the population is called sex ratio.
2. Sex ratio is an indicator of status of women in the country.
3. In population pyramid X-axis shows the percentage of population in a particular age group and Y-axis, which is at the centre of the graph shows age groups.
4. The length of the bar shows number or percentage.
5. The left side of the graph shows male population whereas, the right side of the graph shows female population.
6. Thus, population pyramid indicates number of percentages of male and female population in different age groups in the country.
7. e.g., If we want to know the percentage of male and female in 15-59 age group, we can get it from population pyramid.
8. Therefore, we can study age-wise sex ratio using population pyramid.

### Q:3. Occupational structure of population.

SOLUTION:
1. In all countries working population is engaged in primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities for their livelihood.
2. The percentage of people engaged in these activities is called occupational structure.
3. In developing counties percentage of people engaged in primary occupations is high compared to people engaged in secondary, tertiary or quaternary activities.
4. In developed countries, percentage of people engaged in secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities is more compared to people engaged in primary activities.
5. Trade and infrastructure are advanced. So, more people are required in secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
6. More people engaged in secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities more the country has been developed.
7. Thus, occupation structure of the country is an indicator of the level of economic development of the country.

### Q:4. Literacy rate.

SOLUTION:
1. Literacy rate shows proportion of literate people in the country. The people who can read and write are called literate people.
2. Every country has different norms to decide literacy. In India, those who can read, write and do arithmetic calculations are called literate.
3. Literacy in the country is essential to eradicate poverty and for social, economic and political development.
4. Literacy rate in the country depends upon cost of education, standard of living, status of women in the society, availability of educational facilities and government policy etc.
5. In general, literacy rate of male is more than female with few exceptions.
6. Literacy rate is more than 90% in most of the developed countries of Europe, North America, Australia etc.
7. Lowest literacy rate is in Sub-Saharan Africa.

## 3. Give geographical reasons.

### Q:1. In developed countries, percentage of population engaged in agriculture is low.

SOLUTION:
1. In developed counties there is development of industries, infrastructure and trade.
2. Therefore, more people are engaged in secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
3. These countries replace human labour with machinery. So agricultural activities can be carried out with minimum people and can make use of machinery.
4. Therefore, the percentage of population engaged in agriculture is low in developed countries.

### Q:2. Literacy rate of a country is an indicator of its socio-economic development.

SOLUTION:
1. Socio-economic development of the country is measured by people’s standard of living, social status of female in society, educational facilities in the country and government policies.
2. Higher the literacy rate of women, the more women are educated and employed.
3. If the literacy rate is high people are educated, employed and well settled. Owing to which the standard of living becomes high.
4. If government policies are favourable for education, educational institutes are more developed, more people become educated and employed. This leads to higher standard of living.
5. Thus, literacy rate of countries is an indicator of its socio-economic development.

### Q:3. Demographic dividend increases when proportion of working population increases.

SOLUTION:
1. The productivity of the country depends upon working and non-working population in the country.
2. If more people are working and fewer people are non-working, then resources are invested in other areas, so there is a boost to the country’s economic development.
3. Due to boost in economy per capita income increases.
4. Thus, there is economic benefit to the country which is dividend and it benefits all in the country.

### Q:4. Migration is not always permanent.

SOLUTION:
1. When migrated person never returns to his original place it is called permanent migration.
2. In most of the cases migration is seasonal, may be to work as labourer in farm during a particular season or migration of tribal people in search of fodder. This is short term migration.
3. In case of migration for jobs to city areas or to other countries, people work in migrated areas but visit their original places once or twice in a year. This is long term migration.
4. Thus, in most of the cases migration may be short term or long term and not permanent.

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

## 5. Answer the following questions in detail.

### Q:1. Outline the importance of population pyramids in the study of populations.

SOLUTION:
1.  To study population of any country people use population pyramid.
2. With the help of population pyramid, age-wise and gender-wise population of the country can be studied.
3. Age structure and sex ratio are important aspects of population of the country.
4. In population pyramid, percentage of population in age groups are shown on the X-axis. Whereas markings of age groups are shown on the Y-axis.
5. The right side of the pyramid shows female population and left side shows male population.
6. As the age groups are on Y-axis, the base of pyramid indicates young age population, and apex of pyramid indicates old age population and middle portion of pyramid indicated adult population.
7. When old age population is more, it leads to more non-working population and there is increased expenditure on medical and health facilities.
8. When younger age population is more, it also leads to more non-working and dependent population. This causes a burden on the economy.
9. When adult age population is more, then working population is more. This helps the development of the country.
10. The population pyramid makes us understand age-wise and sex-wise population as per following:
• Broader the base, more young age population.
• Narrower the base less young age population.
• Broader the apex, more old age population.
• Narrower the apex, less old age population.
• Left and right side of pyramid shows male and female population in the country.
11. There are three types of population pyramids which depicts the birth rate and death rate.
Expansive pyramid- It has abroad base and narrow apex. It shows high birth rate and high death rate.
Constrictive pyramid- It has narrow base and broad apex. It shows low birth rate and low death rate.
Stationary pyramid- Here all age groups have same percentage. It shows very low birth rate and very low death rate, that means slow growth of population in the country.

### Q:2. Explain the rural and urban population structure.

SOLUTION:
1. The area where more people are engaged in primary activities is called rural area and the people living in rural areas are called rural population.
2. The area where more people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities is called urban area and people living in urban area are called urban population.
3. There is a difference in density of population, age structure, sex ratio occupation structure standard of living, lifestyle of people, sources of income, literacy rate etc.
4. There is major difference in level of economic development in rural and urban areas.
5. There is more use of modern technology in urban areas compared to rural areas. Therefore, development in all fields is very fast.
6. Due to more development of industries and infrastructure in urban areas there is an increase in the transportation and trade as compared to rural areas.
7. The criteria to differentiate rural and urban population varies from one country to other country.

### Q:3. Examine the impact of migration on the population structure of a country.

SOLUTION:
1. In migration people move from one place to another place for different reasons.
2. The place from where people migrate outside is called donor region.
3. The place where people migrate to is called recipient region,
4. Due to migration of people there are changes in age structure and sex ratio in both the regions.
5. In donor region due to migration of young male population there is disturbance in the age structure.
6. More females remain in donor area. So, donor area has high sex ratio. In India there is high sex ratio in rural areas due to migration of people from rural to urban areas.
7. In donor region there are changes in age structure as well.
8. More old age people and children remain in donor region which is non-working/ non-productive population.
9. There is shortage of working population.
10. In recipient region male population increases due to migration of male into region.
11. As a result, sex ratio in recipient region goes down. In many big cities of India sex ratio is less than 85% or 90%.
12. In recipient region the percentage of working populatioh increases.
13. There is more working population than non-working population, which helps in economic development of the region.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 2 Population Part 2

Population is also considered as a human resource. The physical and intellectual characteristics of the population affect the development of a region. The development of a region is dependent on how human resources are used like other natural resources. The human economic activities also develop with reference to human resources. In fact, if human resources are not developed efficiently, the use of other resources also gets adversely affected. Considering these issues, the population structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, etc. are studied in Population Geography.

## Population Composition :

1) Age Structure : The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups  infants, children, teenagers, young, adults, old people. Each of the age group has a share in the population. Their share in the population varies from country to country. The population in each group changes. Their share in the population also varies. Try the following activity in fig. 2.1 to understand the age structures of different countries.

## Geographical explanation

Demographers use population pyramids to describe age and genderwise distribution of populations. The Y-axis in the centre of this graph shows age groups while X-axis shows population or percentage of population. The lengths of bars show the numbers or percentage of population. The left side of the graph represents the males while the right side represents the females. The base of the graph represents the children population while apex represents the old people. A larger size of the population in the age group of 15-59 years indicates the chances of having a larger independent working population. On the other hand, if the number of children in 0-15 is high, the dependency ratio will be high. Similarly, a growing population in the age group of 60 plus, indicates greater expenditure for medical and health facilities for the aged population.

## Three main types of population pyramids :

As per fig.2.1, we will see three main types of population pyramids : i) Expansive (A) : Broad base with narrowing apex shows that more people die at each higher band. This also shows high birth rate and high death rate. ii) Constrictive (B) : Base gets narrower while apex is broader. This indicates lower percentages of younger people and more of elderly people. This shows low birth rate and lower death rates. iii) Stationary (C) : Almost all age groups have same percentages. Very low birth rate and very low death rate. Population hardly grows. The type of age structure has a direct influence on the future of a nation. Both extremes, i.e., old age dependency as well as young age dependency, prove to be a severe burden on the economy of a country. On the other hand, higher proportion of working population means large number of manpower.

## Geographical explanation

Demographic dividend refers to the growth in an economy, which is the result of a change in the age structure of a country’s population. The change comes because of a decline in birth rates and death rates. As fewer births are registered, the number of young dependents grow smaller, relative to the working independent population. In simple words, dividend is a type of reward that is distributed among the shareholders. It is the division of profit or surplus received. In a country, there is working population and dependent population.

The ratio between working and nonworking dependent population determines how productive the country is economically. The higher the ratio, higher will be the contribution of working population in the economy. When the population of a country goes through demographic transition, fertility rates, birth rates and death rates also change. There is a change in the age structure of the country. As fewer births are registered, the number of dependents become smaller than the working population. With fewer people to support and more people working, economy’s resources are invested in other areas to accelerate a country’s economic development.

As a result of this, per capita income increases over with time. This economic benefit is in the form of dividend which benefits everyone in the economy. The benefits are not achieved automatically. Demographic dividend depends on whether the government implements the right policies in areas such as education, health, research, etc. It depends on the level of schooling, employment, frequency of childbearing, economic policies on tax incentives, health programs, pension and retirement policies.
Demographic dividend in a country is visible in the following ways :
1) Personal savings can grow and can be used to stimulate the economy.
2) As number of children are less, parents can invest more in their education. Thus, human capital is built.
3) As more women join the labour force and become economically strong, they contribute in the country's economic growth.
4) Per capita GDP increases because dependency ratio is decreased.

## Geographical explanation

The table 2.2 shows that many countries have considered or are considering an increase in the retirement age. This is happening because increase in ageing populations puts increasing pressure on pension funding, retirement provisions and medical facilities. Therefore, many countries have begun raising the pensionable retirement age. Increase in ageing population occurs because life expectancy of the population is generally increasing. Thus, people can now work up to higher ages. For example, the life expectancy in Japan is around 84 years. Therefore, they are now considering increasing the retirement age to 70 which is at present 60 years.

Another aspect which needs to be seen in these countries is their age structures. The proportion of children and young adults in these countries is less or decreasing and hence these countries have increased the retirement age. In China, the retirement age will be changed only in 2045 because it is only then that the proportion of children and young adults is going to reduce in the age structure. Given that life expectancy is likely to continue rising in India, the growing proportion of young and children population should also be considered.

3) Literacy and education : Proportion of literate population of a country is an indicator of its socio-economic development. It reveals the standard of living, social status of females, availability of educational facilities and policies of the government. The level of economic development is both, a cause and consequence of literacy rate. Every country has its own definition of literacy. In India – literacy rate denotes the percentage of population above 7 years of age, which is able to read, write and has the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding.

### class 12 geography chapter 2 population question answer maharashtra board

1. Balbharati solutions for Geography 12th Standard HSC
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