# Population Part 1 Exercise 12th | Geography Class 12 Chapter 1 question answer

## 1. Identify the correct correlation.

### Q:1. A - Areas which have fertile soil have dense population.

R - Fertile soils are good for agriculture.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Solutions:
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

### Q:2. A - Population of a region does not change.

R - Birth rate, death rate and migration affect the population of a region.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Solutions:
[b] Only R is correct.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

### Q:3. A - In stage 2, death rate reduces but birth rate is constant.

R - Population increases rapidly in stage 2.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Solutions:
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

### Q:4.A - In stage 5 death rate is more than birth rate.

R - Population is declining in stage 5.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Solutions:
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

### Q:5. A - In stage 1 both death rate and birth rate are high.

R - Population growth is stable in stage 1.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Solutions:
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

## 2. Write short notes on.

### Q:1. Impact of relief on population distribution.

Solutions:
1. Relief is one of the most important factors influencing the distribution of population.

2. Generally, mountains are thinly populated, plains are thickly populated and plateaus are moderately populated.

3. The mountains and hilly areas are less populated because of limited means of livelihood; agriculture is poorly developed and transportation facilities are limited. For example, north eastern states of India have less population due to hilly and mountainous relief.

4. On the other hand, plains are densely populated because of fertile soil and well-developed agriculture. Due to plain relief, it is easy to construct roads and develop industries. Better employment facilities attract people in these areas. For example, Ganga plains are thickly populated.

5. In short, we can say plains are densely populated and mountains and plateaus are sparsely populated.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

### Q:2. Correlation between birth rate and death rate.

Solutions:
Birth rate and death rate are the important components of population change.
Birth rate is the number of live births in a year per thousand population.
Death rate is the number of deaths in a year per thousand population.
Population growth depends upon birth rate and death rate in a year.
Population growth occurs not only by increasing birth rate but also because of decreasing death rate.
When birth rate is more than death rate, population increases.
When birth rate is less than death rate, population decreases.
If both, birth rate and death rate is same then population is said to remain stable. However, the birth rate and death rate being same is only a hypothetical situation.

### Q:3. Stage 3 of Demographic Transition Theory.

Solutions:
1. Stage 3 of Demographic Transition Theory is the stage of expanding population.
2. From second stage to this stage, death rates are decreasing. Birth rates are also decreasing. Decrease in both birth rates and death rates, reduces the rate of growth of population. But actually, population is growing because the birth rates are higher than death rates.
3. In this stage, since the country is making progress, the income of the people is above the subsistence level and there is an improvement in the standard of living of the people. Poverty is also reducing.
4. There is development of technology as a result secondary and tertiary activities develop.
5. Due to increase in education level, people understand the importance of family planning so size of family reduces.
6. In short in stage 3 countries are moving from developing stage to developed stage.

## 3. Give geographical reasons.

### Q:1. India is passing through Stage 3 of demographic transition.

Solutions:
1. In India, since there is a decrease in the birth rates and death rates, the growth rate of population is also decreasing.
2. Due to the development in the country, income of the people has reached above subsistence level, standard of living is improved, poverty is decreasing, technology is developing.
3. Number of people engaged in secondary and tertiary activities are increasing.
4. Due to increase in the literacy rate, people have understood the importance of family planning. Therefore, there is a decrease in the size of family.
5. Hence, India is passing through Stage 3 of demographic transition.

### Q:2. Population distribution is uneven.

Solutions:
1. Distribution of population in the world is very uneven because distribution of population depends upon many physical factors such as relief, climate, availability of water supply, soil etc.
2. For example, if you consider relief factor, mountains and hilly areas are thinly populated. Plateau regions are moderately populated and plains are densely populated. The Himalayan region in India is thinly populated but the Gangatic plains are thickly populated and Deccan plateau region are moderately populated.
3. The distribution of population also depends upon human factors such as agriculture, mining, transportation, urbanisation etc.
4. For example, agriculture or mining activities support large population since they provide source of living to many people.
5. Sometimes government policies also affect population distribution. For example, government provided land, water, electricity at concessional rate in New Mumbai area to attract people and to reduce pressure of population in Mumbai city.

### Q:3. Population increases because of transportation facilities.

Solutions:
1. The development of roads and railways makes the region more accessible.
2. Such areas provide favourable conditions for the development and manufacturing industries, which generate employment. Therefore, people from different areas migrate in search of jobs. Thus, such areas become densely populated. For example, Gangetic plain of India, where the density of roads and railways is highest in India.
3. Population increases in port cities due to availability of sea transport for the development of trade. Therefore, the coastal region is densely populated. For example, many port cities like Chennai, Mumbai are developed on the east and west coast of India.
4. Thus, population increases because of transportation facilities.

### Q:4. Secondary and tertiary activities increase in the third stage of demographic transition.

Solutions:
1. In Stage 3 of demographic transition theory, growth rate of population decreases.
2. As a result, the income of the people in the country reaches above subsistence level. Poverty rate decreases and standard of living increases. Therefore, the use of technology increases and this generates an employment in secondary and tertiary activities.
3. Due to increase in education level and development of health facilities there is increase in employment in tertiary sector.
4. Thus, secondary and tertiary activities increase in the third stage of demographic transition.

### Q:5. Population may increase though birth rates are low.

Solutions:
1. The growth of population depends upon the difference between number of live births in a year per thousand population and number of deaths in a year per thousand population. Therefore, growth of population depends upon both birth rate and death rate.
2. When birth rate is low and death rate is also low, then though the number of live births per thousand population are less, but due to a smaller number of deaths per thousand population, there is increase in population of the country.

### Q:6. Population density is a function of population and area of a region.

Solutions:
1. The number otry is also large therefore, density of population is low.
2. Thus, populationf people living in any area or country is called total population of the area or country.
3. Density of population is the ratio between total population and a total area of that region or country.
4. For example, as per the census of 2011, Density of population in India is 325 persons per sq. km. It is a ratio between total population in India and total area of India in sq. kms.
5. In some countries total population may be less but the density of population is high due to small area of the country. For example, Bangladesh’s total population is less but area of country is small therefore, density of population is high.
6. In some countries total population may be more but the density of population is low due to very large area of the country. For example, Brazil has more total population but area of coun density is a function of population and area of a region.

## 4. Answer the following questions in detail.

### Q:1. Explain the physical factors affecting distribution of population.

Solutions:
Physical factors affecting distribution of population are:
[i] Relief
[ii] Climate
[iii] Availability of water
[iv] Soils

[i] Relief

• Distribution of population is greatly affected by relied features.
• Generally, flat plains or gently sloping lands are densely populated.
• Plains are suitable for agricultural activities.
• In these areas it is easier to construct roads and railways and development of industries and trade. As a result, many people are attracted to plains and they become densely populated. For example, Ganga plains are thickly populated.
• On the other hand, in mountainous and hilly areas density of population is low. This is because in such areas agricultural development is difficult.
• The construction and development of transport facilities is very difficult and costly too. Such areas are inaccessible.
• Due to inaccessibility, movement of goods and people are restricted. Therefore, mountainous and hilly areas are thinly populated. For example, north eastern states of India have less population due to hilly and mountainous relief.

[ii] Climate

• Climate is the most important factor of all the factors influencing the distribution of population.
• Areas having very hot or very cold climate, heavy rainfall are very uncomfortable for human settlement. Such areas are thinly populated.
• For example, polar regions where Eskimos and Lapps live are sparsely populated due to extreme cold climate. Sahara Desert is sparsely populated due to extreme hot climate.
• On the other hand, areas with equable climate, that is climate having not much seasonal variation attract people. People feel comfortable to stay in these areas.
• For example, coastal areas have dense population because of equable climate and wide scope for the development of agriculture, industries and trade.

[iii] Availability of water

• Water is the most important factor affecting distribution of population. It is the most essential factor for all human activities.
• Therefore, more people live in areas where potable and sufficient water is available. As a result of this most of the river valleys are densely populated i.e. Nile river valley.
• Even in desert areas there is more population near oasis due to availability of water.

[iv] Soil

• Fertile soils are most important for the development of agriculture.
• The areas having fertile alluvial soil have developed intensive agriculture and support large number of people and hence they are densely populated, e.g., Gangetic Plain, Plains of Mississippi, Irrawaddy and Yangtze etc.
• Similarly, in the areas having very fertile black cotton soil or regur soil, agriculture is well developed and hence such areas are densely populated.
• The volcanic soil is very fertile hence, it supports agriculture. Therefore, slopes of volcanic mountains have dense population. For example, volcanic mountain slopes of Java island.

### Q:2. In the first and fifth stage of the demographic transition, population growth is almost nil. What is the difference between the two stages then?

Solutions:
• In the stage 1 both birth rates and death rates are high. The difference between the two is very less and therefore, population is stable.
• In stage 1 birth rates are high due to limited educational opportunities, people feel having many children is good. Therefore, families are big.
• In stage 1, due to lack of sanitation facilities, medical facilities, spread of contagious diseases, malnutrition, etc., death rate is high.
• In stage 5 birth rates and death rates are very low. Birth rates are almost equal to death rates.
• As a result, the population growth is almost minimal or very low or even negative in case of some countries.
• In stage 5, death rate is low because of improved medical facilities, eradication of contagious diseases and healthy environment.
• In stage 5, due to increase in awareness among the people, birth rate is low.

### Q:3. Discuss the problems faced by counties in stage 4 and stage 5.

Solutions:
Problems faced by stage 4 countries are as under:
The death rate is very low and going down as the medical facilities have improved and pandemic like plague, cholera, small pox, etc., are eradicated.
Birth rate is the same as death rate so population growth is minimal.
Problems faces by stage 5 countries are as under:
1. In this stage the birth rate is very low and death rate is high. Therefore, the growth of population is slow or negative growth of population is seen.
2. Due to large number of old people the death rate is high and due to a smaller number of young people birth rate is low.
3. Due to large number of old people, dependent population is high.
4. Due to less young age population, working population is limited.
5. As a result, the size of dependant population is larger than active population and it has adverse effect on economy of the country.

### Population Part 1 Exercise 12th | Geography Class 12 Chapter 1 question answer

Geography studies humans and their interactions with their environments. The study of population is a part of Human Geography under a branch called Population Geography. Population Geography studies human population and its distribution and pattern on the earth’s surface. Their qualitative and quantitative composition is also studied in this subject. The way the population influences the economy and the development of a region are also the points of study in Geography. In this chapter, we will study humans as a resource.

## Geographical explanation

Human population is unevenly distributed throughout the world. In the year 2019, the world’s population stands to be around 7.7 billion. Continent wise population distribution is as follows : North and South America that account for around 28% of the landmass barely support 18% of the population. Asia occupies about 30% of the land mass and supports around 60% of the population. Europe has around 7% land and supports 5% of the population. Australia has around 6% of the world’s land but does not even support 1% of the population. Africa occupies 20-40% land and supports 16.96 % population of the world. Antarctica occupies around 9% of the landmass but has no permanent human settlements. This distribution of land and population can be better understood not just in terms of numbers living in a region but also in terms of people living in an unit area. This is called population density.

## Patterns of Population Distribution in the World :

Looking at the pie-charts given in fig. 1.1 and table 1.1 together, we can conclude the following. We find that population and population densities both are unequally distributed in the world. When you look at the regions with large populations, it is explicitly visible. Patterns of population distribution and density help us to understand the demographic characteristics of any area. The term population distribution refers to the way people are spaced over the earth’s surface.

## Geographical Factors Affecting Population Distribution :

Here are some physical and human factors affecting the distribution of population. Fill in suitable examples of countries or regions in the table 1.3. Two examples have been solved for your
Following factors determine population distribution :

Physical Factors : 1) Relief (Landforms) : Population is densely distributed on flat plains and gentle slopes. This is because such areas are favourable for the production of crops. In these areas it is easier to build roads and develop industries. The mountainous and hilly areas tend to be less populated. If means of livelihood are available, population can be concentrated in few such areas. For example, Dehradun, Leh, etc. Thus, it can be concluded that plateaus or mountainous areas are less populated than plains.

2) Climate : Extreme climates such as very hot or cold deserts or regions with very heavy rainfall are uncomfortable for human habitation. They have less population. Areas with an equable climate, where there is not much seasonal variation, attract more people. Mediterranean regions were inhabited due to their pleasant climate. In cold climates, only people like the Eskimos and Lapps, who are highly adapted to such climates, can live in these regions. Vast equatorial areas of the Amazon lowland and Congo basin are very sparsely populated due to their unfavourable climate.

3) Availability of water : It is the most important factor for life for all living beings including man. So, people prefer to live in areas where fresh or potable water is easily available. You will find that easily through the map in fig. 1.2. It is because of this, that river valleys and coastal areas are among the most densely populated areas of the world. For example, Nile valley and coastal plains of India are one of the most densely populated areas of the world. In deserts too, population is found near oases. For examples, Phalodi from Thar desert and Al-Ahsa from Saudi Arabia have developed around oases.

4) Soils : Fertile soils are important for agricultural and allied activities. Therefore, areas which have fertile loamy soils have more people living on them, as these can support intensive agriculture. The flood plains of the river Mississippi, the Ganga, the Irrawaddy, the Yangtze are examples of areas having high densities of population. Similarly, areas having Regur or black soils are also densely populated. The slopes and foothills of many volcanoes have high densities of population as their slopes are covered with fertile volcanic soil. The slopes and foothills of volcanoes in Java, Japan, Sicily and Central America support many people. If a dormant volcano erupts someday, these settlements may face disasters. They may face economic losses and loss of life. For example, fig. 1.3 shows people leaving their places after an eruption in Mt. Agung in Bali

### Human Factors :

1) Agriculture : Increase in agricultural production due to use of fertilisers and irrigation make it possible to support more population. Type of agriculture, crops grown, method of cultivation and specialisation of particular crops are other characteristics of agriculture that affect the distribution of population. Do map activity related to fig 1.4.

2) Mining : Areas with good quality mineral deposits attract industries. Mining and industrial activities generate employment.  So, skilled and semi–skilled workers move to these areas and make them densely populated. Katanga copper belt in Zambia, the Chota Nagpur Plateau in India, coal and iron fields of Western Europe, the Manchurian region of China and the Appalachian mountains of the USA are examples where population is dense due to availability of minerals. Some minerals are highly valuable and they are extracted despite odd physical conditions. In such areas, population may be dense. This is true for precious and rare minerals like gold and mineral oil. For example, gold mines area in the Australian desert, mineral oil in the desert regions of South-West Asian countries.

3) Transportation : After studying the satellite images in fig. 1.5, you may find that roads or highways may increase the population here. Such regions are easy to access because of roads thus increasing density. On the contrary, if accessibility is difficult, it takes more time and is costlier to reach there, then the region is sparsely populated. Fig. 1.5 clearly shows that the population density has increased as a highway passes through this area. Sea transport led to the discovery of new places.

Port cities got developed. The population grew there due to trade. For example, the construction of the Suez Canal increased the exchange of raw materials and goods. Therefore, the population appears to be concentrated in coastal regions. Western and eastern coastal regions of India, the western and eastern coastal regions of the United States are examples.

4) Urbanisation : The growth of industries is responsible for the development of towns and cities. Tertiary activities like transportation, trade and other services also increase in order to cater to the needs of the growing urban population. Cities offer better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, better means of transport and communication. In many areas of the world, a continuous urban belt is found. For example, Greater Mumbai.

5) Political factors and government policies : Besides all the above factors, the policies of various governments also affect population distribution and density. A government may choose to promote population in an area or depopulate it. For example, the government promoted human settlement in parts of Siberia by giving more opportunities and special incentives. For example, in Japan the government is giving incentives to people to leave Tokyo, as about one third of Japan lives in Tokyo.

## Population Composition :

Composition of population covers all the characteristics of a population that can be measured. For example, rural and urban residence, age, marital status, sex ratio, etc. are the basis on which population can be classified to understand its characteristics.

## Population Structure :

Structure of a population is the overall picture or the idea we get by studying the composition of the population. For example, age composition of the population tells us about the percentage of children, young and aged in the country. Population structure will give us an idea about the dependency ratio and the effects this composition will have on the economy of the country. We will study about them in the next chapter

## Population Part 1 Exercise 12th | Geography Class 12 Chapter 1 question answer

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