Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

1. Complete the Chain

Q: 1.

(1) Small scale industries(1) Manual manufacturing(1) Ceramics
(2) Cottage industries(2) Skilled crafts person(2) Tata Iron and Steel company
(3) Consumer goods(3) Individual(3) Potters
(4) Private(4) Ready for direct consumption(4) Pharmaceutical
(1) Small scale industries(1) Ready for direct consumption(1) Potters
(2) Cottage industries(2) Manual manufacturing(2) Ceramics
(3) Consumer goods(3) Skilled crafts person(3) Pharmaceutical
(4) Private(4) Individual(4) Tata Iron and Steel company

2. Identify the correct correlation.

A : Assertion, R : Reasoning

Q: 1. A - The humid climate of Mumbai offered great scope for the development of cotton textile industries.

R - Industries require ample amount of water.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Q: 2. A - In India, industries are found concentrated in few areas are available.

R - India is predominantly agrarian country.
[a] Only A is correct.
[b] Only R is correct.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A.
[d] Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
[c] Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A.

3. Give geographical reasons.

Q: 1. Distribution of industries is uneven.

  1. Distribution of industries depend upon various physical factors like climate, raw material, water and power supply, labour, transportation, land, etc., and economic factors like capital, market and government policies.
  2. Physical and economic factors vary from region to region and political factors vary from country to country.
  3. Industries are developed where physical and economic factors are favourable for their development.
  4. Thus, distribution of industries is uneven.
  5. For example, in India industries are concentrated in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chota Nagpur region and in the rest of India, agriculture is the only major economic activity.

Q: 2. Iron and steel industries are found in mineral rich area of Dhanbad.

  1. Important raw materials used in iron and steel industry are iron-ore, limestone, dolomite, manganese and coal.
  2. All these raw materials are heavy, bulky and weight-loosing.
  3. The cost of transportation of these materials are very high.
  4. Dhanbad and its surrounding areas are the major iron-ore and coal producing areas.
  5. • Since this industry is using weight-losing raw materials which are available around Dhanbad, iron and steel industry is found at Dhanbad.

Q: 3.Fruit-processing industries are found in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts of Konkan region.

  1. Fruit processing industries use fruits as raw material.
  2. Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts are known for horticulture. They are major mango, jackfruit, cashew and kokum producing districts of Maharashtra.
  3. All these fruits are raw materials in fruit processing industry.
  4. These raw materials are bulky, weight-losing and perishable and hence the industry is located in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts where fruits are grown in plenty.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Q: 4. What are the major factors which have hindered the growth of industries in South America?

  1. Industries in the continent of South America are developed only in coastal areas of Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Peru.
  2. The hindrances in the growth of industries in South America are due to unfavourable physical factors such as dense forests in Brazil, deserts in interior parts of Argentina, Andes mountain range running along the west coast.
  3. The economic factors like limited capital, lack of modern technology and lack of transportation facilities etc., create hindrance in development of industries.
  4. Comparatively low density of population and lack of markets are the other factors responsible to have hindered the growth of industries in South America.

4. Write short notes on.

Q: 1.Footloose industries.

  1. Footloose industry is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect of factors of location such as land, labour, climate and capital.
  2. The raw material used as well as finished products of these industries are very light so their location near the source of raw material or transport is not important.
  3. These industries often have spatially fixed cost, which means that costs of the product do not change despite where the product is assembled.
  4. Diamond cutting, computer chips and mobiles manufacturing are some of the examples of footloose industries.
  5. Advance technology like internet, email are used for raw material as well as marketing.
  6. These are generally non-polluted industries.

Q: 2. Public sector industries.

  1. Public sector industries are owned by the state.
  2. The investments in public sector industries is done by the government. Also, marketing of goods is done through government agencies.
  3. Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as military, law enforcement infrastructure [public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply electrical grids, health, etc.].
  4. Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited [BHEL] is one of the largest engineering and manufacturing companies of its kind in India engaged in designing engineering construction.

Q: 3. Economics of scale.

1. Economics of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain because of various facilities
established due to basic industries in certain region.
2. Sometimes due to advantage of many favourable factors for industrial development in certain areas, there is concentration of industries in that area, which is called agglomeration of industries.
3. In these regions industries develop not due to any locational factors but due to economies of scale enjoyed because agglomeration of industries.
4. Due to the development of basic industries other ancillary industries which are complementary to each other also develop. For example, once cotton textile industry develops in any region, readymaide garment making industries, industries supplying dyes and chemicals, industries producing materials like thread, buttons, laces, etc., also develop.
5. Due to such agglomeration, the industries in that region get more profit compared to their investment due to economies of scale such as cheap transport, labour, financial facilities etc. For example, transport companies give concession, hence, the cost of transportation decreases.
6. Since industries in this region are complementary, it is easier to collect or supply goods from other industries of nearby areas. For example, dye making industries supply dyes to cotton textile industry and cotton textile industry supplies cloth to ready-made garment industries.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Q: 4. Role of transportation in industries.

  1. Transportation facilities are important for the collection of raw materials and distribution of finished products.
  2. Low cost of transportation is the key factor in the location of industries.
  3. Transport network is crucial for sustained economic growth and development of a nation.
  4. Transport system helps to send raw material, fuel and machinery to different industries at the right time and runs the industry.
  5. Thus, transport plays a crucial role in the development of industries.

5. Differentiate between.

Q: 1. Weight-losing and Weight-gaining Industries.

(i) Weight-losing industries are those industries in which raw material are relatively bulky but finished products are relatively light.(i) Weight-gaining industries are those industries in which raw materials are relatively lighter than finished products.
(ii) Weight-losing industries are located near raw materials.(ii) Weight-gaining industries are located near markets.
(iii) For example, sugar industries locate near sugarcane producing areas. 10 tons of sugarcane is required to produce 1 ton of sugar.(iii) For example, cotton textile industries locate near the market because finished product cotton cloth is heavier than the raw material cotton.

Q: 2. Primary and Secondary Activities.

Primary Activities Secondary Activities
Primary ActivitiesSecondary Activities
(i) Primary activities include activities, such as hunting, fishing, mining, agriculture.(i) Secondary activities include manufacturing and constructions.
(ii) These activities are concerned with obtaining materials directly from nature. For example, fish from water or wood from trees.(ii) These activities add value to the already existing products by changing their form, making them more suitable to satisfy our needs and wants.
(iii) Primary activities produce raw materials.(iii) Secondary activities produce finished products.
(iv) Production of goods in primary activities depends upon natural factors.(iv) Production of goods in secondary activities depends on technology, skill of labours and capital.

Q: 3.Basic Industries and Consumer Industries.

Basic IndustriesConsumer Industries
(i) The finished products of these industries are used by other industries.(i) The finished products of these are used as raw material which are directly consumed by consumers.
(ii) For example, iron and steel industry provides steel as raw material to machine tool making or agricultural implements making industry.(ii) For example, the medicines made in pharmaceutical industries are directly consumed by consumers.
(iii) These industries supply their products to others. Hence, they are called linkage products.(iii) These industries supply their products to consumers. Hence, they are called as consumer goods industries.

6. Answer the following  in detail.

Q: 1. Explain the physical factors affecting location of industries.

  1. Climate, raw material, water, power, labour, land and transport are important physical factors deciding the location of industry.
  2. Extreme climate like too hot, too cold, dry and very humid climate are not suitable for industries. Generally, industries develop in areas of moderate climate.
  3. Availability of raw material is essential for the development of industries. Industries using perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are located in the areas of source of raw materials. For example, sugar mills near sugarcane growing areas.
  4. Most of the industries require lot of water for processing, like cooling, washing etc. Such industries are located near lakes, rivers or other water bodies. For example, many industries are located around Great Lakes in USA.
  5. Labour is another important factor deciding location of industries. Availability of skilled, semi-skilled and cheap labour is very important to work in industries. Hence, we generally find labour colonies are located where skilled and cheap labour is available.
  6. Transport facilities are essential for transport of raw materials and finished products. Low cost transport is the key factor in the development of industries. Industries develop in the areas, where transportation network is well developed. For example , many industries are developed along Trans-Siberian railway line in Russia.
  7. Industrial development need huge land for the construction of industrial units. Industries develop where cheap, plain and extensive land is available.
  8. Industries need power supply, main sources of power supply are coal, oil, electricity and now a days wind energy, solar energy etc. Industries locate near coal mines, or availability of electricity. For example, industries concentrated around coal mining area of Ruhr region of Germany or industries concentrated near Khopoli hydro power station.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Q: 2.Explain the factors affecting location of sugar industries.

  1. The following are the factors affecting the location of sugar industries.
  2. Sugar industry is and agro-based industry.
  3. Sugarcane is the raw material in sugar industry.
  4. Sugarcane is perishable and weight-losing raw material.
  5. It is also heavy and bulky raw material.
  6. Taking into consideration all above characteristics of raw material used in sugar industry, it is always located in the areas of sugarcane production.
  7. In Maharashtra, Satara, Kolhapur, Ahmednagar, Sangli etc., are the sugarcane producing districts and the same districts have concentration of sugar industry.

Q: 3. Explain the economic and political factors affecting location of industries.

  1. The following are the economic factors affecting the location of industries.
  2. 1. Neatness to market : Transport cost is one of the important costs included in production cost of goods. If industries locate near the market there is saving on transport cost and goods reach to the consumers as early as possible. Some industries whose finished products are perishable or bulky or heavy, locate near the market. For example, ice cream making, furniture making or air craft making industries.
  3. 2. Availability of capital : Capital is required for land, construction, equipment, labour, transport etc. Therefore, industries are located in areas where banking and financial facilities are available. Generally, these facilities are available in big cities, therefore in India many industries are located in big cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Kolkata etc.
  4. The following are the political factors affecting the location of industries.
  5. Government policies : The government policy of encouragement or discouragement directly affects location of industry.
  6. Sometimes government gives encouragement for development of industries in economically backward areas or to reduce the overcrowding in nearby cities by providing land, water, power at cheaper rate. For example, to reduce the overcrowding in Mumbai city, the government provided land, water, electricity at a cheaper rate in Navi Mumbai.
  7. The government policy regarding import, export, taxes, subsidies, etc., also affect location of industries. For example, liberal policy for industries in the State of Gujarat attracted many industrialists to set up industries.
  8. Development of SEZ : Due to the development of Special Economic Zone [SEZ] many industries are attracted in SEZ area. SEZ are developed to set up public sector or private sector industries, specially to increase export quality production in the country.

7. Show the following on a map of the world with suitable index

[1] Ruhr industrial region
[2] An industrial region in Japan
[3] An industrial region in South Africa
[4] An industrial region in Australia
[5] Industrial region near Great Lakes
Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Observe the pictures given in the textbook figure. Identify the activities with which these figures are associated and complete the table.
Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Try These

Q: 1. Look at the map of Solapur district. It shows the location of some sugar industries. Shamrao is a farmer at location A. He has just harvested his sugarcane crop. Study the map and tell where should he send his crop? What factors will Shamrao consider for this? [Textbook Page No. 43]

[i] Shamrao has two options, he can sell his sugarcane to Pimpalner Sugar Factory or Virag Sugar Factory, since both the factories almost at equal distance from A.
[ii] The most important factor of consideration is the distance and perishability of sugarcane as a raw material.
[iii] Third factor he should take into consideration is from A, the road condition. The factory to which he should send sugarcane must be in good condition; so that sugarcane can be transported to industry as early as possible.

Q: 2. Firoz’s son has done an advanced course in Bakery Management from the nearby city. He wants his son to start a bakery in their village but his son says it should be in the city, which is around 20 kms from their village. Who is correct? Firoz or his son? Why? [Textbook Page No. 44]

The decision of Firoz’s son is correct. He should start a bakery in the city. First thing is that bakery products are perishable and secondly there is loss of weight of raw materials in the production of bakery products.

Q: 3. Shantaram is a young boy from a tribal area in Maharashtra. He wants to start a honey processing unit as he has access to good honeycombs in the forest. The city is around 35 kms away. He has his own land in the village and is also getting land in the cit3\ Where should he establish the honey factory? In the village or in the city? Why? [Textbook Page No. 44]

[i] Shantaram should start his honey factory in the city. Raw material in his factory will be honeycombs.
[ii] From honeycombs he will get two finished products - honey and wax. The weight of honeycombs after extracting honey and wax will be the same and therefore ideal location is city.

Can you tell?

Q: 1. Find example of market-oriented industries. [Textbook Page No. 45]

[i] All textile industries are market-oriented industries Cotton Textile, Silk Textile, Woollen Textile.
[ii] All assembly industries are market-oriented industries Automobile, Air-craft, shipbuilding industries.

Use your brain power!

Q: 1. Following is a list of few industries. Think about the factors of location of these industries and tell whether they are footloose industries or not. Complete the table accordingly. [Textbook Page No. 47]

[i] Cotton textile industries
[ii] Cement industries
[iii] Diamond industries
[iv] Mobile manufacturing units
[v] Paper industry
[vi] Sugar industry
[vii] Food processing industry
[viii] IT [Hardware] industry
[ix] Oil refinery
[x] Hairpins industry
Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Q: 2.[i] Refer to the lumbering map of the world in fig. 4.1 and 5.1, tell which industries will be located in the northernmost island of Japan?

[ii] How have the Great Lakes been instrumented in development of industrial regions in the USA?
[iii] How has the Trans-Siberian Railway contributed to the development of industries in Russia? [Textbook Page No. 51]
[i] Paper and pulp industry.
[ii] The Great Lakes have been instrumented in the development of industrial regions in the USA through concentration of minerals and coal producing areas, local market, capital and technological development.
[iii] The Trans-Siberian Railway contributed to the development of industries in Russia is Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway system connecting Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok on the pacific coast.
This railway connects all major cities in Russia.
It passes through major iron-ore and coal producing areas, which has helped to the development of iron and steel industry in Russia.
This railway line helped for the movement of raw material and finished goods.
Therefore, many industries have been developed along this railway route.
It has also helped the movement of passenger and goods traffic in East-West direction.

Make friends with maps!

Q: 1.Study the given map in fig 5.3 and answer the following Q:s. [Textbook Pages 47 & 48]

Secondary Economic Activities Class 12 | Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

[i] In which hemisphere do you find more concentration of industries?
[ii] In which part of North America has the industrial region been mainly developed?
[iii] In which part of Europe is concentration of industries mainly found?
[iv] Why is less industrial development found in other parts of African continent except coastal areas?
[v] In which part of India do you find concentration of industries?
[vi] Why do you think coastal areas have higher concentration industries?
[vii] Write a concluding paragraph on latitudinal distribution of industries in the world.
[i] Northern Hemisphere.
[ii] North eastern Region.
[iii] North western, South and Central part
[iv] Dense forest, deserts, mountains, grasslands in other parts of African continent are responsible for less development of industries.
[v] Portal cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and other areas like Delhi, Bangalore, Chota Nagpur etc.
[vi] Coastal areas have better ports and inland water transport facilities. Even road and rail transport are well developed.

Extensive level land.
Industries which depend on imported raw material like oil prefer to develop on coastal areas.
Industries which need humid climate develop in coastal areas for example textile industry.
[vii] Major industrial regions are concentrated in Northern Hemisphere in the latitudinal belt of 30° North to 50° North latitudes. However, there is an exception of Siberian industrial region in Russia.
  • North America, major European countries, Japan, China and parts of Russia falls in this latitudinal belt.
  • Major cause of the development of industries in this latitudinal belt is the Industrial Revolution in Europe.
  • In this region both mineral based and agro-based industries have developed.
  • Development of science and technology, skilled labour, well developed transportation facilities, high standard of living and extensive local market in this latitudinal belt are the other factors responsible for the development of industries.
  • However, outside this major industrial belt in Northern Hemisphere* only exception is India, industries have developed in latitudinal belt 8° North to 20° North.
  • Even in Southern Hemisphere industries have developed in the same latitudinal belt i.e. 30° South to 50° South latitudinal belt in South Africa, South America and South Australia.

Give it a try

Q: 1.Look at the given logo. Find out more information about it and write a short note on it. [Textbook Page No. 53]

Digital India.
[i] Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India in order to ensure the government’s services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing internet connectivity or making the country digitally empowered in the field of technology.
[ii] The initiative includes plans to connect rural India with high speed internet networks.
[iii] Digital India consists of secure and stable digital infrastructure, delivering government services digitally and universal digital literacy.

Make in India:
On 25 September 2014, the Government of India launched a movement ‘Make in India’, like Swadeshi movement, for 25 sectors of Indian Economy. The main purpose to start this movement was to provide encouragement to businessmen in India to set up companies to manufacture their products in India and to investment more for the same.

In line with make in India, individual states too launched their own local initiative, such as ‘Magnetic Maharashtra’, ‘Make in Odisha’, Vibrant Gujarat, etc.

Startup India
[i] Startup India is an initiative of the government of India was first announce by Indian Prime minister, Narendra Modi during his 15 August 2015 address from the Red Fort in New Delhi.

[ii] The action plan of this initiative is focussing on three areas:

Simplification and Handholding.
Funding support and incentives.
Industry-Academia partnership incubation.
[iii] An additional area relating to this initiative is to discard restrictive state Government Policies within this domain, such an ‘License Raj’, Land permissions, Foreign Investment Proposals, and Environmental clearance. It was organised by Department for promotion of industry and internal trade.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities Notes

Geographical explanation 

In the previous chapter, we have learnt about the primary activities, where the product is directly obtained from the nature. Some products obtained through primary activities are utilised directly, while some are processed and made into a more durable product. The products obtained from the primary economic activities are used as raw material in secondary economic activities. 

Further, processing of these materials takes place and a manufactured finished product is prepared to sell it to the consumers. Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products. Secondary activities, therefore include manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries. The place where conversion of products obtained from primary activities into final products takes place, is called ‘factory’.

While studying all these examples, you will understand that location of an industry is dependent on many factors. To set up an industry, one needs raw material and that has to be transported from somewhere. We know that the raw material for industry is the final product of the primary activities. The characteristics of the raw material and also the finished product affect the location of industries.

 For example, sugar industries need sugarcane. Sugarcane loses weight and amount of sugar after harvesting as time after harvest increases. This affects their effective use for producing sugar. Thus, sugarcane needs to be sent to nearby factories as soon as possible. Sugar industries are, therefore, located near the production of raw material. 

On the other hand, in bakery industries, the final output, say cake, has higher weight than raw materials. This will be costlier to transport, as transport cost will increase with weight. Therefore, bakery industries are located near the markets. Let us, look at the factors which affect the location of industries.

Physical Factors :

 1) Climate :

 Harsh climate is not much suitable for the establishment of industries. There may not be any industrial development in extremely hot, humid, dry or cold climate. For example, the extreme type of climate of North-West India or extreme North India hinders the development of industries there. Change in climatic conditions, for example, may also affect industries. For example, chronic droughts. 

 In contrast to this, the moderate climate of western coastal area is quite congenial to the development of industries. Earlier, when artificial threads and mechanization were not used for making textiles, cotton thread-making required humid climate because thread breaks in dry climate. 

Consequently, majority of cotton textile mills were concentrated in coastal parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Artificial humidifiers are used in dry areas these days, but it increases the cost of production. 

2) Availability of raw material : 

Raw materials used in industries mainly come from farms, mines, forests, fisheries etc. Thus, location of industries is dependent on the nature of raw material. Industries dependent on perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials, such as sugarcane, are located near the raw material area. 

(as in example 1 in Try this). The jute mills, sugar mills, are mostly concentrated close to the sources of raw materials for this very reason. Similarly, industries processing local fruits are found near Mahabaleshwar and Nagpur. Perishable fruits need to be processed soon and hence, they are located near these cities.

3) Water and power supply : 

Almost all the industries require plenty of water for various processes like cooling, smelting, washing etc. Thus, such industries are located near the banks of rivers or near lakes. Coal, oil, electricity are indispensable energy resources in running any type of industry. Coal is heavy and bulky. Thus, industries dependent on coal as energy resource are located near the mining area. Electricity and oil can be supplied through wires and pipelines easily over long distances. Hence, industries dependent on it, need not be located near their source region.   

4) Labour : 

Different types of industries require different types of labour. For example, construction, mining industries or textile industries require semi-skilled labourers, where as food-processing industries, ornament-making industries require skilled labourers. In spite of increasing mechanisation, some industries still require a large number of workers. Hence, we find that labour colonies are found near large industries

5) Transportation : 

The cost of transportation and time required to carry goods is known as economic distance. Low cost of transportation is the key factor in the location of industries. Cost of transportation will be more for heavy, bulky, perishable raw materials and for longer distances. For example, transportation of coal. On the other hand, light-weight and non-perishable items can be brought from far distances through cheaper transportation like waterways. Such industries may be located near the ports or rivers. For example, cotton textiles or pulpwood.

6) Site or availability of land : 

Site requirements for industrial development are of considerable significance. Location should be generally flat and well served by adequate transport facilities. Large areas are required to build factories. Earlier, industries were concentrated near urban areas but now because of non-availability of land and high prices, there is a tendency to set up industries in rural areas. For example, Lote Parshuram industrial area in Chiplun and Chakan in Pune.

Economic Factors :  

1) Proximity to Market : 

The entire process of manufacturing is futile until the finished goods reach the market. Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods. It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get things at cheaper rates. Ready market is most essential for perishable and heavy commodities. Sometimes, during the process of production, products become bulky and delicate. For such final products, industries are located towards markets. For example, cake as a final product is heavier than raw materials. That is why, such industries are located near markets i.e. cities.

2) Capital : 

Capital or huge investment is needed for the establishment of industries. Industries are located in those areas where banking and financial facilities are easily available. As a matter of fact, capital is attracted to those areas where industries industries. Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi being the centres of industry have better banking and financial facilities than other cities. Now, with an expansion of better banking facilities in rural areas, industries can also be located there.

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Maharashtra State Board 12th Std Geography Textbook Solutions Digest

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