Primary Economic Activities Class 12 Exercise | Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities Solutions

Primary Economic Activities Class 12 Exercise |  Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities Solutions 

Primary Economic Activities Class 12 Exercise |  Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities Solutions

1. Choose the correct option and complete the sentence.

Q: 1. The gathering of various products from the forests for livelihood is mainly carried out in

(a) Temperate coniferous forests.
(b) Temperate deciduous forests.
(c) Tropical deciduous forests.
(d) Equatorial evergreen forests.
(d) Equatorial evergreen forests.

Q: 2. Ideal location for fishing

(a) rugged coasts, shallow seas, hot climate, growth of planktons.
(b) shallow seas, the confluence of warm and cold ocean currents, growth of planktons, cold climate.
(c) continental shelf, growth of planktons, good fishing skills, cold climate.
(d) continental shelf, rugged coasts, growth of planktons, cold climate.
(b) shallow seas, confluence of warm and cold ocean currents, growth of planktons, cold climate.

Q: 3. Primary economic activities not related directly to latitudinal locations

(a) lumbering
(b) fishing
(c) mining
(d) agriculture
(c) mining

Q: 4. Characteristics of extensive commercial agriculture

(a) monoculture, use of water, tropical, cereal production.
(b) monoculture, use of machinery, tropical cereal production.
(c) monoculture, use of manual labour, equator, Thailand, horticulture.
(d) monoculture, use of scientific know how, sub-tropical, production of pulses.
(b) monoculture, use of machinery, tropical cereal production.

2. Complete the chain.

Q: 1.
(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture(1) Dogger bank(1) Small size of farm
(2) Pampas grassland region(2) Off shore oil and gas production(2) Unfavourable Climate
(3) Fishing(3) Rice(3) Bombay high
(4) Gathering(4) Dense forest(4) NE Atlantic Ocean
(5) Mining(5) Commercial animal husbandry(5) South America

(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture(1) Rice(1) Small size of farm
(2) Pampas grassland region(2) Commercial animal husbandry(2) South America
(3) Fishing(3) Dogger bank(3) NE Atlantic Ocean
(4) Gathering(4) Dense forest(4) Unfavourable Climate
(5) Mining(5) Off shore oil and gas production(5) Bombay high

3. Write short notes on.

Q: 1. Plantation agriculture

  1. Plantation agriculture is an extensive type of agriculture having large farm size on which one crop is cultivated. This is known as monoculture.
  2. Care has been taken to maintain the quality of the crop using scientific methods. This type of agriculture is modern as well as capital intensive agriculture.
  3. Since most of the work is done by human labour this type of agriculture is also referred to as labour intensive agriculture.
  4. The plantation crops once grown provides production for 10 to 15 years.
  5. Tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, cashew nut, spices, etc., are the most important crops. For example, Rubber plantations in Kerala or tea plantations in Assam.
  6. Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Caribbean islands are the important countries where plantation agriculture is practiced.

Q: 2. Physical factors and fishing

  1. Development of fishing requires specific physical factors.
  2. Therefore, it is developed on a commercial scale where physical factors are favourable for fishing.
  3. The following are the important physical factors, which can be responsible for the development of fishing.
  4. Broad continental shelf, with shallow water is favourable. For example, continental shelf along the eastern coastline of Japan is broad and water is shallow.
  5. Warm and cold ocean currents should meet near the coastline, so that plankton (favourite fish food) is available in plenty.
  6. Broken coast line which provides natural ports and harbours.
  7. Cold climate is favourable for natural preservation of fish.
  8. Since above all physical factors are present on the north-east coast of USA, north western coastline of Europe as well as in Japan, commercial fishing is well developed.

Q: 3. Lumbering on a commercial scale

  1. Commercial lumbering is well developed in coniferous forest region of Canada, North Western Europe and Soviet Union.
  2. The important factors responsible for the development of commercial lumbering in the above areas are as follows.
  3. In coniferous forest one species of trees are found over an extensive area.
  4. Coniferous trees are tall and away from each other so lumbering is easy.
  5. Wood is soft and durable. Coniferous forests provide good raw material for paper and pulp industry and furniture making industry.
  6. Due to good quality of wood (softwood) it has great demand in the world market.
  7. Cool and pleasant climate is favourable for labour to work throughout the year.

Q: 4. Hunting and loss of ecosystem

  1. Before the development of agriculture hunting was the important activity of man to obtain food.
  2. Many animal species were becoming extinct because of large scale hunting.
  3. Therefore, to protect the ecosystem, in many countries commercial hunting is banned.
  4. Presently, many laws are being passed to conserve and protect the animals and ecosystem.
  5. Yet, many tribal people such as Eskimos in Tundra region, Pygmies of Equatorial Selvas, Bushmen of Kalahari, Sentinels in Andaman etc., are still doing hunting.

4. Give geographical reasons.

Q: 1. Agriculture is done on a large scale in India.

  1. More than 46 percent of the total population of India is engaged in Agricultural Activities.
  2. In northern India, we have extensive fertile alluvial soil in Gangetic plains most suitable for the development of agriculture.
  3. In south peninsular India, there is very fertile black cotton soil suitable for a variety of crops.
  4. Along the coastal lines fertile soil is found in the deltas of river Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi, Tapi, Narmada, etc.
  5. Many rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, Tapi, Narmada and their thousands of tributaries and canals provide water for irrigation.
  6. The economic and social factors, including labour, market, capital, transportation facilities, storage facilities and government policies, etc., are all favourable for the development of agriculture.

Q: 2. Mining is developed in Chhota Nagpur plateau of India.

  1. The distribution of minerals is highly uneven in India.
  2. The geology of Chhota Nagpur region is very rich in minerals.
  3. There is concentration of minerals like iron-ore, manganese, mica, copper, limestone, and lead in Chhota Nagpur region.
  4. The government policy, capital investment in mining activities, technological development, availability of skilled labour, transport facilities, etc., are favourable for the development of mining activity in Chhota Nagpur region.
  5. Development of many industries related to minerals are located in this area, which gave boost to the development of mining activities.

Q: 3. Lumbering is developed on a large scale in Canada.

  1. Lumbering is one of the most important economic activity in the areas covered by coniferous forest in Canada.
  2. In Canada coniferous forest grow in large belt, since the climate is suitable for the growth of coniferous trees.
  3. In these forests only one species of trees grows in one area which is favourable for the lumbering.
  4. The development of lumbering depends upon the type of wood, climate, market and transport facilities.
  5. Commercial lumbering is developed in Canada because there is coniferous forest region, which provides soft wood, which is easy to cut, carry and durable.
  6. Cool climate of Canada, well developed transport facilities for the movement of logs, use of machinery for logging, large demand in local and international market for paper and pulp industries, limited development of other economic activities due to extreme cold climate are the other factors responsible for lumbering in Canada.

Q: 4. Extensive agriculture is a commercial type of agriculture.

  1. Extensive commercial agriculture was developed in temperate grassland region in Steppes, Prairies, Downs, Pampas and Veld grasslands.
  2. In these grassland areas population density is low and size of farms is very large from few hundred to thousand acres.
  3. There is extensive use of machinery from sowing to harvesting.
  4. Modern and scientific methods of agriculture are used, so production is large.
  5. The per hectare production is low whereas per capita production is high.
  6. Since population in those grasslands is very low and there is surplus production,
  7. Therefore, large quantities of food grains are available for export, so this agriculture is known as commercial type of agriculture.

Q: 5. Lumbering is practiced more in coniferous region than in tropical region.

  1. Lumbering activity depends upon nature of wood – hard or soft, density of forest, number of species in the forest, transportation facilities, use of machinery and market.
  2. In coniferous forest region trees provide softwood, which is easy to cut and durable.
  3. In coniferous forest region one type of species are found in extensive area, so lumbering is easy.
  4. In coniferous forest region there is use of machinery for lumbering and transport facilities are also well developed.
  5. There is lot of demand for softwood in local and international market, hence commercial lumbering is more developed.
  6. On the other hand, in tropical region, density of trees is very high, different types trees grow in close proximity, so lumbering is difficult.
  7. In tropical region surface movement is difficult and transport facilities are not developed because of marshy land.
  8. In tropical region there is no local market since trees provide hardwood and therefore commercial lumbering is not developed.

Q: 6. Hunting has been banned.

  1. In the older days hunting was the most important primitive activity of man to obtain food.
  2. Since agriculture was not developed, it was the only source of food for man.
  3. As a result, large number of animals were killed to such an extent, that some of the species
  4. of animal have become extinct or at the verge of extinction.
  5. In order to conserve and protect animals, hunting is banned all over the world.

5. Differentiate between.

Q: 1.Lumbering in Equatorial forests and Temperate forests.

Equatorial ForestsTemperate Forests
(i) It is a tropical evergreen forest.(i) It is a temperate coniferous forest.
(ii) It is mixed forest.(ii) One species of trees are found over an extensive area.
(iii) Wood is hard.(iii) Wood is soft.
(iv) Hot and humid climate, suitable for labour.(iv) Cool and pleasant climate is suitable for labour.
(v) Surface movement difficult.(v) Surface movement not difficult.
(vi) Mechanisation not possible for cutting trees.(vi) Mechanisation is used for cutting trees.
(vii) No demand in local market.(vii) Local market well developed.

Q: 2. Plantation Agriculture and Extensive Commercial Agriculture

Plantation AgricultureExtensive Commercial Agriculture
(i) Developed in tropical region.(i) Developed in temperate region.
(ii) Labour intensive farming.(ii) Machinery is more used.
(iii) Only crops are grown.(iii) Commercial animal rearing is also done along with farming.
(iv) Tea coffee, cocoa spices are important crops.(iv) Wheat and maize are important crops.
(v) This type of agriculture is practiced in Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, etc.(v) This type of agriculture is practiced in temperate grasslands of North America, South America, Europe and Asia.
(vi) Crops for export purpose.(vi) Crops for export purposes.

Q: 3. Mining and Fishing

(i) Since ancient times man is using minerals as raw material.(i) Since ancient time man is using fish as a food.
(ii) Found naturally in crust of the earth.(ii) Found naturally but in rivers, lakes, seas and oceans.
(iii) Used as industrial raw materials.(iii) Used as a food.
(iv) Highly uneven distribution.(iv) Found everywhere in waterbodies.
(v) Availability of minerals depends upon geological structure.(v) Availability of fish depends on nature of coast line, cool climate, cold and warm ocean water currents etc.

6. Answer the following Q:s in detail.

Q: 1.What are the factors affecting commercial fishing?

  1. Following factors affect commercial fishing.
  2. Extensive continental shelf with shallow water. For example, Dogger bank fishing area.
  3. Confluence of warm and cold ocean water currents, which is favourable for the growth of plankton. For example, Gulf warm pcean current and Labrador cold current meet together near Dogger bank on North Eastern coast of North America.
  4. Broken coastline for the development of ports and -.
  5. Traditional skills of some local people who are expert in fishing.
  6. Large size of population to provide demand for fish.
  7. Limited land to grow protein rich food, so that fish becomes staple food of people.
  8. Use of advanced fishing boats and fishing nets.
  9. Cool climate for natural preservation of fish.
  10. Forest resources to provide wood for ship building industry.

Q: 2. Write a note on Intensive Subsistence agriculture.

  1. Intensive subsistence farming is practiced in densely populated countries like China, India. Japan, Sri Lanka and east Asian countries.
  2. Since there is large population and limited fertile agricultural land, there is small land holding.
  3. Farmers work intensively to get maximum yield from available small land.
  4. Rice is the dominant food crop produced in this region.
  5. Mostly manual labour and animals are used for all agricultural activities.
  6. Most of the production is consumed locally and hence no surplus is available for export.
  7. Yield per hectare is high but yield per capita is low.

Q: 3.Give characteristics of Market Gardening.

  1. The following are the characteristics of market gardening.
  2. It is a modern type of agriculture developed mainly on the fringe of highly industrialised and densely populated urban areas.
  3. Vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, meat etc., are the important products produced.
  4. Size of the farm is very small like garden.
  5. Scientific and technological knowledge as well as manual labour to some extent is used in production.
  6. Use of capital is very high.
  7. Natural organic manures and chemical fertilizers are used.
  8. Developed in areas lying at the distance of overnight journey by trucks, so that perishable products can be carried to nearby city market as early as possible. For example, vegetables and fruits grown at Vasai and Virar are carried to Mumbai.

Q: 4. Write a note on the areas in the world practicing commercial animal husbandry.

  1. Commercial animal husbandry is practiced in 30°N to 60°N latitude, and 30°S to 55°S latitudes.
  2. Commercial animal husbandry is practiced in temperate grassland regions of steppes in Russia, prairies in North America, downs in Australia and velds in South Africa and Pampas plains of Argentina.
  3. In these areas there is cultivation of crops as well as grass for animals.
  4. In these areas agriculture and animal husbandry is done together.
  5. This type of farming needs huge capital investment and more use of modern machinery, advanced technology, market and large land.
  6. In North and South America, it is carried with the help of advanced technology on a commercial scale.

Q: 5. Mining is dependent on the extraction of naturally occurring minerals. Explain.

  1. Mining is one of the oldest economic activity of man.
  2. Man cannot produce minerals that are naturally found in the crust of the earth.
  3. This activity solely depends on the presence of minerals.
  4. It also depends on geology of the region, value of minerals, quality of minerals, capital investments, technology and availability of skilled labour, etc.

Q: 6.Write in detail about the characteristics of primary economic activities.

  1. Hunting, gathering, fishing, rearing animals, mining and agriculture, etc., are the important primary economic activities of man.
  2. These activities are solely dependent on nature.
  3. Primary activities mean extraction of natural resources.
  4. These activities mainly produce raw materials required in different types of industries.
  5. Natural calamities affect most of the primary activities.
  6. In developing countries very large proportion of working population is engaged in primary activities, since there is less use of machinery.
  7. In developed countries there is less proportion of working population engaged in primary activities, since there is more use of machinery.

7. On an outline map of the world, show the following with appropriate symbols and prepare-an index.

Q: 1.
(a) Dogger Bank fishing area.
(b) Area of lumbering in Asia.
(c) Area of animal husbandry in Australia.
(d) An area of agriculture in Europe.
(e) Mining area in Arabian Sea.
(f) Fishing area in South-West Atlantic Ocean.

8. Given below is the data about the continent wise employment engaged in primary economic activities in the year 2018. Draw a suitable diagram to represent the data and answer the Q:s that follow

Q: 1.
Continent% of population engaged in primary economic activities
North America14.93
South America14.94
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities 2
(1) In Europe less than 10% population is engaged in agriculture.
(2) In Africa more than 40% population is engaged in agriculture.
(3) Ascending order is as follows:
Africa, Asia, Australia, South America, North America, Europe

Primary Economic Activities Notes

Geographical explanation

You must have understood the difference in the distribution of various activities from the given observation. All these activities are dependent on nature. Hunting, gathering, animal husbandry, agriculture, fishing, lumbering, mining etc. are primary economic activities. Natural resources exploited in primary activities, factors affecting these activities and effect of natural calamities affect these primary activities. To fulfil the needs of growing population, to provide technical help to manpower etc. mechanization was started in primary activities.

Primary Occupations : 

1) Hunting : 

Hunting was a primitive activity of man to obtain food. A large number of animal species have become extinct or are on the verge of extinction because of large-scale hunting. Commercial hunting is banned all over the world. Also many laws are being passed to conserve and protect the animals. Some tribes practice hunting for their subsistence.

Distribution : Bushmen of Kalahari desert (South Africa), Pygmies of Equatorial Selvas, Boras, Eskimos of Tundra, Sentinels in Andaman, Jarawahs, Onges, etc. hunt for livelihood.

Many people in the world practice this activity which is dependent on the forest products. They collect fruits, roots and tubers, leaves, flowers, medicinal plants for their livelihood. They also collect products like gum, lac, honey, wax, rubber, etc. Different types of forest products are collected. 

e.g. kath is collected from monsoon forests from Khair trees. Some of these products have a high demand in the market. This activity is carried out on a large commercial scale. This occupation is carried out in all the forest covered regions of the world. 

 The equatorial forests are dense and evergreen. The climate is humid and unhealthy. Due to the disturbance of reptiles and insects, collection of forest products is not done on a large scale. 3) Lumbering : Observe the given map in Fig. 4.1 and answer the following questions :
 1) Which countries in the monsoon region practise lumbering on a larger scale? 
2) In which part of Australia is lumbering carried on? 
3) Why do you think lumbering is not carried out in the Northern part of Africa? 
4) Write a note on the relationship between latitudes and lumbering. 
5) Lumbering is not developed on a commercial level in equatorial regions?

Amongst all other activities going on in the forest, lumbering is one of the most important activities. According to the nature of vegetation, we divided earth into various natural regions. The trees in the tropical forest have hardwood. Also, these forests are evergreen and hence commercial lumbering cannot be done in these forests.

 Tropical deciduous or monsoon forests are not dense. Many bushes grow at the base of these forests. Since these forests are near agricultural lands and densely populated regions, they have been deforested for agricultural purpose on a large scale. In the coniferous forests, only one species of trees is found in an area. These trees grow tall. 

That’s why in the world, the lumbering activity is mostly practised in the coniferous regions. Today, wood is used on a very large scale for various purposes, hence the percentage of forest in the world is decreasing drastically. As a result, hazards related to the environment are occurring

1) Along which coast of North America is the Grand Bank located? 
2) Along which coast of South America is the fishing mostly practised? 
3) In which part of the Australian continent has fishing activity developed? 
4) Fishing is carried out on large scale on the Western coast of Africa than on the Eastern coast. Give reasons. 
5) Commercial fishing is practised on the Southern coast of Greenland. Give reasons.

Geographical explanation

Considering the latitudinal distribution of animal husbandry in the world, it is located between 30°N to 60°N and 30°S to 55°S latitudes. Climate is one of the most influencing factors in the development of animal husbandry. It is more developed in the Northern Hemisphere. Presence of grasslands in all the continents has led to distribution of this occupation. But, this occupation is influenced by advanced technology, market and availability of large estates.

 It has developed on a commercial basis in North America, South America and Australia. The animal husbandry in North and South America is carried out with the help of advanced technology on a commercial scale. Dense forests inhospitable climate, low-quality fodder in equatorial region has discouraged the development of animal husbandry in these regions. Looking at fig. 4.1, we realise that agriculture and animal husbandry is done together in man’s areas. Hence, they are considered as allied activities

Man has been using minerals since ancient times. Minerals have been used for making weapons, tools, jewellery, medicines, utensils, etc. The various stages of cultural evolution of man are also related to the use of minerals. At the end of the Stone Age, man developed skills of using minerals. Various periods like the Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Atomic Age, respectively were delineated accordingly. Man’s progressive development can be attributed to the exploitation of minerals. He has even started exploiting the mineral oil and natural gas reserves from the sea and ocean beds too. Man cannot manufacture the minerals that are found naturally in the earth’s crust. The distribution of minerals is highly uneven in the world.

 This activity depends solely on the presence of minerals and not related to latitude directly. Even though the minerals may be present, actual mining depends on several factors. These factors may be the geology of the region, the value of the minerals, climate, capital investment, technology, skilled labour, etc. Due to mechanisation, this occupation has developed on a large scale. Many industries related to minerals locate near mining areas. Improved transportation facilities are very important for development of mining occupation. This, in turn, increases industries which in turn leads to economic development of the country.

Primary Economic Activities Class 12 Exercise |  Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities Solutions 

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