Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise | Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities

Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise |  Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities

Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise |  Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities

1. Complete the Chain

Q: 1.

(1) Matheran(1) Tea(1) Communication
(2) GPS(2) Atlantic Ocean(2) Tertiary Activity
(3) Sri Lanka(3) Satellite(3) Export
(4) Panama Canal(4) Tourism(4) Pacific Ocean
(1) Matheran(1) Tourism(1) Tertiary Activity
(2) GPS(2) Satellite(2) Communication
(3) Sri Lanka(3) Tea(3) Export
(4) Panama Canal(4) Atlantic Ocean(4) Pacific Ocean

2. Choose the correct option.

Q: 1. Tertiary activities include

[a] Use of natural resources
[b] Finished product
[c] Raw material
[d] Transportation
[d] Transportation

Q: 2.Natural ports

[a] Kochi
[b] JNPT
[c] Delhi International Terminal
[d] Nagpur Cargo Hub [MIHAN]
[a] Kochi

Q: 3.Trans-Australian Railway connects

[a] Perth - Sydney
[b] Perth - Vladivostok
[c] Sydney - Vancouver
[d] Vancouver - Vladivostok
[b] Perth - Vladivostok

3. Give geographical reasons.

Q: 1.Tertiary activities include both services and exchapge.

  1. Transportation, communication, trade and commerce are the main tertiary activities.
  2. Road, rail and airways are the important modes of transportation, which help in exchange of goods and services. Therefore, it is a service activity.
  3. Transportation provides facilities for the movement of goods from areas of surplus to areas of scarcity produced in primary and secondary activities.
  4. Credit facilities, banking facilities, marketing are also tertiary activities, they provide services to people.
  5. Postal services, shopkeepers, vegetable sellers, fruit sellers, etc., are also included in service activities.

Q: 2.The proportion of airways as means of transportation is increasing.

  1. Air transport is an important enabler to achieve economic growth and development.
  2. In the global world, there is exchange of goods between countries. Therefore, there is more use of air transport to carry perishable, valuable and light goods from surplus areas to scarcity areas.
  3. It facilitates integration into global economy and provides vital connectivity on a national, regional and international scale.
  4. Nowadays tourism is the fastest growing industry; air transport is more used for international tourism.
  5. Therefore, the proportion of airways as means of transportation is increasing.

Q: 3.Geographical diversity is responsible for trade to occur.

  1. The geographical diversity is the set of physical, human and cultural elements differentiated from each other that converge in the relatively small geographic space that is part of the same zone, region or country.
  2. If you take into consideration natural regions of the world, each region is different from another.
  3. The natural resource available in one country will be different from the ones available in different regions.
  4. There is variation in climate, soil, minerals, forest, relief, water supply etc.
  5. Depending upon the availability of geographical factors, there is specialisation of certain economic activities in certain areas and there is trade from surplus areas to scarcity areas. For example, in one region, plenty of oil is available while in another region no oil reserves are available.
  6. This variation in distribution of oil will be responsible for the development of trade between oil rich and oil poor countries.
  7. Thus, geographical diversity is responsible for trade to occur.

4. Write short notes on.

Q: 1.Importance of satellite as means of communication.

  1. A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via. transponder.
  2. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet and military applications.
  3. The information about physical and human factors is obtained from satellite communication.
  4. Satellite communication is used in remote islands, in some countries and continents where landline telecommunication is rare or not available.
  5. As television becomes the main market, its demand for satellite communication becomes very important.
  6. Satellites are also used for internet communication, military communications, etc.
  7. Thus, importance of satellite as means of communication is increasing.

Q: 2.Role of transportation in trade.

  1. Transport support trade and industry in carrying raw material to the place of production and distribution of finished products for consumption.
  2. Transport means to make goods available to consumers.
  3. Transport makes possible movement of goods from one place to another with great ease and speed.
  4. Trade means exchange of goods and services. In trade there is movement of goods from surplus areas to scarcity areas. The movement of goods is possible only because of transport.
  5. In other words, without the help of transport development of trade is not possible.
  6. Thus, transport plays an important role in economic development and globalisation of trade.

Q: 3.Tourism and GDP.

  1. Tourism is vital for the success of many economies around the world.
  2. Tourism boosts the revenue of the economy, creates thousands of jobs and develops the infrastructures of the country.
  3. It also creates jobs in agriculture, communication, health and educational sectors.
  4. The government that depends on tourism, invests a lot in the infrastructure of the country. They construct new roads and highways, develop parks, improve public places, and set up airports, etc.
  5. With augmenting facilities, more and more tourists are attracted in such countries, thus, there is boosting of the GDP.

5. Differentiate between.

Q: 1.Secondary Economic Activities and Tertiary Economic Activities

Secondary Economic ActivitiesTertiary Economic Activities
(i) Secondary activities are concerned with activities adding value to already existing products from primary activities.(i) Tertiary activities are concerned with providing services rather than providing material goods.
(ii) Development of secondary activities depends upon the production of resources in primary activities.(ii) Development of tertiary activities depends upon the development of secondary activities.
(iii) Manufacturing and construction are important secondary activities.(iii) Trade, transport communication, banking, insurance, etc., are tertiary activities.
(iv) Secondary activities produce goods and commodities.(iv) Tertiary activities help reach these goods and commodities to the consumers.
(v) Secondary activities may be away from the market and settlement.(v) Tertiary activities are always near the market and settlement.

Q: 2.Quaternary Activities and Quinary Activities

Quaternary ActivitiesQuinary Activities
(i) Quaternary activities refer to those activities where the task is to think, research and develop ideas.(i) Quinary activities involve work related to administration.
(ii) Confined to research, training and education.(ii) Confined to the highest-level decision taking and policy making.
(iii) Software developers, statisticians, hospital  staff, teachers, financial planners tax consultants, people working in theatres, etc., comes under quaternary activities.(iii) Senior business executives, government officials, scientists, judges, etc., comes under quinary activities.

Q: 3.Waterways and Airways

(i) Development of water transport needs courted area with broken coastlines.(i) Development of airways needs favourable climate, advance technology and plain land for airports.
(ii) This is the cheapest mode of transport.(ii) This is an expensive mode of transport.
(iii) Heavy and bulky goods are transported, e.g., minerals, oil, coal, machinery, etc.(iii) Light, perishable and expensive goods are transported, e.g., electronic goods, gold, silver, fish, dairy products, etc.
(iv) Slow mode of transportation.(iv) Fast mode of transportation.
(v) More used for goods transport than passengers’ transport(v) More used for passengers’ transport than for goods transport.

6. Answer in Detail

Q: 1.Explain the factors affecting trade between two countries.

Trade refers to transfer of goods or services from one person to another or from one country to another. Factors which affect the trade are natural resources, climate, population, culture, economic cost, specialization, etc.

Natural resources : Distribution of natural resources is uneven. The natural resources available in one country differs from another. Because of this uneven distribution of resource, there is trade between resources surplus and resource deficit.

Climate : Climate mainly affects the plants and animals in a region. In the areas of different climate, there are different types of plants and animals. Example, in the tropical countries like Sri Lanka whose major export is tea or Malaysia and Indonesia, whose major export is rubber. This occurs naturally because of favourable climate for growing tea and rubber plants in these countries.

Population : Population size, distribution and density are different in different countries. This leads to difference in production and consumption and hence trade occurs.

Standard of living can also determine the demand for various goods and services. The country with less population depends more on trade because fewer human resources is engaged in production of goods.

Culture : Some countries are known for their specific art and craft, based on their culture, specific production of goods which have worldwide market, for e.g., Kashmiri shawls or Iranian carpets.

Economic Cost : Cost of production is the major factor in the process of production. It is cheaper to import certain goods than producing it in the country itself. For example, it is cheaper to import tea from India and Sri Lanka than producing it in England.

Specialisation : Due extremely favourable factors of production, some countries have specialisation for certain goods and they have name and fame in the world market, so they develop export trade. For example, watches of Switzerland or electronic goods of Japan or tender beef of Argentina.

Government Policy: Government policy about export or import affects trade. For example, Government may increase import duties of some goods, to encourage people to buy domestic goods. Thus, import trade of those goods goes down.

Q: 2.Development of transportation is dependent on geographical factors. Explain.

  1. Various geographical factors affect the development of transport.
  2. Relief, climate and location are the three most important factors that affect the development of transportation.
  3. It is easier to build roadways and railways in plain areas.
  4. Dense forests, hilly and mountainous regions affect the construction of roads and railways, in Africa and South America.
  5. Coastal location with broken coast lines is favourable for development of ports and harbours.
  6. For the development of airways; favourable climate and plain region for construction of airports are essential.
  7. Foggy and smoggy weather and high peaks will be obstacles for the development of air transport.

Q: 3.Why is transportation system important in the development of any nation?

  1. Transportation plays important role in rapid economic growth of a nation.
  2. The introduction of railways has been historically the most important and powerful single factor in the process of economic development of industrial nations of the world like USA, France, Germany, Japan, etc.
  3. The significance of transportation in economic activity is found in its effects on both human wants and satisfaction of wants through production and distribution of goods.
  4. Transportation increases the quality and variety of consumer goods, thereby stimulating the demand and development of trade and economy of the nation.
  5. Transport provides various employment opportunities and boosts up the economy of the country. For example, many people got employment in construction work of Metro rail track.

Q: 4.Tertiary activities are expanding day-by-day. Explain the statement.

  1. Tertiary activities act as the link between primary and secondary activities.
  2. These activities are mostly in the form of services.
  3. Tertiary activities include transport and communication, trade, loading and unloading of goods, banking, insurance, marketing, export, etc.
  4. Providing public services like hospital, education, research and development, administration, etc., are also included in tertiary activities.
  5. With increasing industrialisation population growth and trade, number of people working in banking, insurance, tax consultants, software developers, teachers, etc., went on expanding day by day.

7. On an outline map of the world, show the following with the help of suitable index

[1] A canal bringing radical changes in sea transport.
[2] Railway connecting two continents.
[3] An international airport in India.
[4] An important port in India.
Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise |  Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities

8. Read the given passage and answer the following Q:s

Careful planning and implementation is necessary for economic development of any country. In the tourism sector the need for planned development is of great importance. It involves many industries working together in a complex way and needs special attention. Planning basically tries to allot limited resources between various competitors with a view to maximize output, income and employment and to make sure different sectors have fair growth.

 Tourism planning is a process through which the set goals can be achieved and the various choices linked to tourism development can be addressed. It is a long term and constant process of preparing, upgrading and improving a destination for tourist.

Communities are the basic elements of tourism. It mainly depends upon the level of acceptance shown by local communities. In the process of planning their involvement is essential. The development of tourism creates impact on mainly environment, socio-culture and economy of the host community at any destination. These impacts produce both negative as well as positive impacts. Planning is necessary to reduce the negative impact and boost the positive impact for sustainable development of a destination.

Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise |  Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities

Geographical explanation 

While reading the passage, you would have come across many human occupations. These are the economic activities carried out by humans. Out of them, some of the activities are completely dependent on nature. We obtain natural resources out of such activities. These activities are primary activities. Man cannot use some of the products received from these activities directly. These products can be used again by increasing their values or making them more durable. 

In that case, these products are processed. This creates new and different products. These are usable, more durable and can be sold at higher prices. Through processing, these activities become a part of secondary activities. Secondary activities are mainly dependent on products obtained from primary activities. There are activities which act as the link between the primary and secondary activities and are complementary to both of them. These are mostly in the form of services.

 If you want a particular service you will have to pay for it. These include buying and selling of goods, means of transportation and communication, loading and unloading of goods, credit facilities, marketing, import and export, etc. Providing public services are also a part of it. Other services like knife grinders, vegetable sellers, shopkeepers, passenger’s carriers, postal services, etc. are also included in tertiary activities. All these services are called tertiary economic activities. (Fig.6.1)

In tertiary occupations, there is no derivation from the nature as it is in primary activities. There may be some products manufactured like secondary activities but they are in the form of services offered. As these activities are mainly of the service category, these occupations are also known as the ‘service sector’. The distribution of many of these services is dependent on many geographical factors. You will realize from the activity above that there are very few such services which are not dependent on natural factors completely. Climate, topography, nearness to the sea or continental location are some of the geographical factors, which may affect tertiary activities. 

 The secondary activities are not only dependent on how long the perishable raw material will last but also the mode of transport through which the raw material is to be delivered. For example, for international export of a product like grape obtained through agriculture, using airways will be a better option, while sending cotton through water transport will be more profitable. 

 The human settlements all over the world have developed as an effect of various favourable geographical factors. Markets, be it retail or wholesale, always occur near these settlements. A secondary activity can occur away from the settlements but markets will not. They are always found near the settlements. 

Loading and unloading of goods takes place at ports and dockyards. Try searching the names of these places with the help of internet. (For example, Ghodbunder, Kochi Port trust, Mumbai Port Trust, Delhi International Cargo Terminal). You will find that these places are either located near a water transport or airways. It is clear from the examples above that tertiary activities are also controlled by geographical factors.  Transportation is also an example of this. Now, it is being operated by advanced technology. 

Transportation : Transportation is a service or facility through which passengers, freight and industrial products are carried from one place to another. Transportation plays a very important role in development of any country. It is one of the basic tertiary activities. Development of all economic activities is dependent on transportation system.

Means of transportation are essential components of transport systems. They are the means to carry passengers or freight or a combination of both, from one place to another. Means of transportation can be grouped into three broad categories based on the medium they use : land, water and air. Each mode has its own requirements and features and is adapted to serve the specific demands of freight and passenger traffic. This gives rise to marked differences in the ways the these means are deployed and utilized in different parts of the world. 

 Various geographical factors govern the development of transport. Relief, location and climate are the three major physical factors. Generally, it is easier to build rails, roads and pipelines where relief is not rugged. Dense forests, hilly and mountainous regions affect construction of long route rails and roads. For example, in dense forest and arid regions of Africa and South America, construction of long distance roads and rails is difficult. 

 Coastal area locations are favourable for development of ports and harbours, especially broken coastlines. Therefore, not all coastal areas can be good ports. With development of technology, air transport is now used more. But still, major trade happens through ocean routes. Two canals which changed the course of transport, Suez Canal and Panama Canal, were constructed to avoid long ocean routes. 

They changed the use of ocean routes radically. Suez canal connected Asia with Europe and Africa. Panama Canal joined Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. For airways to develop, one needs favourable climate, advanced technology and plain regions for airports. Constant fog or smogs, area with high peaks, become an obstacle for air transportation.

Trade means the voluntary exchange of goods and services, where two or more parties are involved. Barter system was an initial form of trade practised by the primitive societies. There was only an exchange of goods. Today, trade occurs in goods and services. Bilateral or multilateral trades are major types of international trade. Trades can be carried out within a country too. Trades can be affected by many factors.

International trade is a result of specialisation in production and human resources. International trade occurs when it is mutually beneficial to trading partners and when it is a comparative advantage for both, rather than producing in their own countries. It may occur to you that this is an economic concept, then why are we discussing this in geography? But, actually, the foundation of this activity lies in geography. You will relate to it when you read the explanation further

 Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise |  Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities

  • Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities
  • Tertiary Economic Activities Exercise |  Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Tertiary Economic Activities
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